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Municipality of Rosario Batangas

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Rosario Batangas Philippines

Thursday, December 29, 2011

Liberation Period

Chapter VI
Liberation Period
Arrival of the Liberation Forces
Post Liberation Administration

Arrival of the Liberation Forces
Shortly after that ambush of the Japanese Soldiers in barrio San Roque, Tombol Hill was subjected to mortar attack by the U.S. forces. Then guerrilla elements (some from Cavite) attached to the advance units of the 11th Airborne Division, arrived and briefly occupied the town. A small patrol of U.S. soldiers came in the latter part of March 1945, and set up an observation post on top of Tombol Hill, before the arrival of the main liberation forces.

The evacuees, on learning of the developments in the town, started to return home. They were jubilant on the arrival of the units of the 11th Airborne Division and the 1st Cavalry Division. These units met south of Lipa (north of Rosario, in the area of now Padre Garcia) on March 30, 1945. The unit of the 11th Airborne Division was left to mop up the overran area [1], assisted by the guerrillas. It set up camp in Rosario with headquarters at the residence of Alcalde Gualberto.

An army field hospital was put up in the municipal nursery ground. It treated both army and civilian patients. The 1855th Signal Company of the 11th Airborne camped and set up the communication facilities in the burnt Catholic Church premises. The other units were camped around the town — in the plaza, in the burnt market place and in the other open spaces.

U.S. soldiers were commonly called "G.I. Joes". On their arrival they were loudly greeted by the civilians: "Victory Joe" with the "V" sign of the hand. G.I. Joes shared their supply of cigarettes with the menfolk; and candies with the women and children. Some civilians were hired to work in the camp as mess hall helpers and tent boys [2]. Some women did the laundry work. They were paid either in canned goods or in Philippine peso. Later, laborers were recruited to work on construction projects and in the base camp in Batangas.

The unit of the 11th Airborne Division stayed in Rosario until about 1945, then moved to Mataas na Kahoy.

Post Liberation Administration
On the reorganization of the local civil government, the U.S. military authorities installed the pre-war officials to their former positions except the alcalde of the town, Dr. Crisanto A. Gualberto. The CIC of the U.S. military authorities arrested Dr. Gualberto on charges of collaboration (a common charge against officials who served during the war). He was publicly displayed in the town plaza as collaborator to the dismay of his town's people whom he had served with fortitude during the war [3]. He was sent to the Iwahig Penal Colony along with Don Claro M. Recto and many other national political leaders of that time [4].

The U.S. military authorities sought the assistance of the Catholic Parish Church in looking for someone to be appointed alcalde of the town. Rev. Father Luis Mortera recommended a very respected resident, Dr. Fernando M. Escano. His family is one of the old and respected families of the town. He declined the honor to be alcalde and instead, he asked for medical supplies to help him open the public dispensary. The military authorities granted his request [5].

Jose B. Zuño, among the highly regarded men of the town, was appointed alcalde. After a brief term of Mr. Zuño, Atty. Jose P. Recto was appointed to be the next alcalde. He was the last alcalde under the Commonwealth Period, and became the First Mayor under the Third Philippine Republic.

  1. Baclogan, Uldarico, Philippine Campaign, p. 346
  2. Author [NB: Conrado T. Reyes] was among those tent boys of the 1855th Signal Co. 11th Airborne Division until their departure for Japan in August 1945.
  3. Related by Dr. Gregorio.
  4. Information provided by Crisanto Gualberto II and added to the author's Chronology of Events, Batikan Souvenir Program 2005.
  5. Dr. Escano, Fernando Letter to the Historical Committee, November 11, 1994.

Read related articles:

Thursday, December 22, 2011

Projected Population: 2011-2012

POPULATION PROJECTIONS for the years 2011-2012 by barangay were calculated using the mathematical method particularly the geometric and participation rate methods described in Population Projections and Estimates section of Volume 2, A Guide to Sectoral Studies in the CLUP Preparation approved by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) through its Board Resolution No.815 Series of 2007 dated December 10, 2007.

The 2007 Census of Population conducted August 1, 2007 and the 2000 Census of Population of and Housing taken on May 1, 2000 were used as basis for our computations.

Bagong Pook4,6214,689
Macalamcam A918932
Macalamcam B1,4391,460
Poblacion A1,0401,055
Poblacion B1,2371,256
Poblacion C1,0051,020
Poblacion D893906
Poblacion E2,2222,255
San Carlos3,3033,352
San Ignacio1,7811,808
San Isidro3,2103,258
San Jose1,8761,903
San Roque3,2483,296
Santa Cruz2,9252,968
Leviste (Tubahan)1,6181,642

Population projections, says the HLURB, are a basic requirement in planning a city/municipality where these projections are primarily used as basis for estimating future needs for basic services (e.g., education and health services), determining level of demand for facilities and utilities, economic-related needs and corresponding spatial requirements, among others.

Rosario Batangas Philippines

Monday, December 12, 2011

Chronology of Events in Rosario


Compiled by Conrado “Ka Rading” T. Reyes

1636 Christianization began on the southwest coast of Batangas (in present day Lobo). A secular priest was stationed in this area.

1687 The Christian settlement or “cabezera” established in this coastal area was plundered by the Moro raiders. The inhabitants fled inland to Hilerang Kawayan near the Kansahayan River (in Taysan). Here they formed a new settlement and adopted the name Rosario. Don Nicolas Morales was their gobernadorcillo.

1691 A parish was established in the new settlement site of Rosario which the Agustinians spiritually administered for some 30 years.

1703 A native of Rosario, Gaspar Aquino de Belen, wrote and published the first Tagalog “Pasyon ni Jesus Christong Panginoon Natin.”

1739 Relocation of Rosario, farther north to a safer place due to the increasing danger of Moro raids had to be considered by the Dominicans were now the administrators of the parishes in the mission. Some years later, Rosario was relocated near the south bank of Tubig ng Bayan, which is now Padre Garcia. The original location is came to be known as Pinagbayanan, Taysan.

1751 A document of this year described a church in Rosario to have been built of light materials, but with a fully furnished and painted “reablo mayor” (altar).

1776 Rosario became a parish at its new location.

1834 The church was continuously improved until it had not only a wall of cut stone, but a tiled roof and a bell tower as well.

1848 San Juan was officially separated from Rosario as an independent town, after it became a separate parish in 1846.

1849 A native son of Rosario, Vicente Garcia, was ordained priest. He held high positions in the Archdiocese of Manila but had later joined Dr. Rose Rizal in the propaganda movement leading to the Revolution of 1896.

1850 Taysan became an independent town, but still remained part of the parish of Rosario with Lobo until 1860.

1871 Lobo became a separate town. The Recollects began to administer the parish of Rosario. In the succeeding years, Rosario became its vicariate center with the Reverend Father Fray Mariano Paña as provincial vicar. Much improvement was done in Rosario by the Recollect fathers.

1896 Rosario was among the few undisturbed towns in Batangas at the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution

1897 The friars had earlier abandoned their church. Don Melecio Bolaños, municipal president, with the tacit agreement of Padre Vicente Garcia, organized an armed group and took possession of the town.

1898 Rosario, freed of Spanish control, elected Don Leon Magtibay, municipal president. Don Melecio Bolaños was given command of the local insurrectos.

1899 With the outbreak of the Filipino-American War, Bolaños was commissioned colonel, and Rufino Goyena as captain by Gen. Miguel Malvar. Arrival in Rosario of 17 Spanish prisoners of war for the custody of Col. Bolaños.

1900 January 13 - Invasion of Rosario from Lipa by some 15 American troopers on horseback, led by Col. Bullard and Col. Anderson. After a brief fight, the Filipino defenders withdrew. The Americans came upon some 70 Spanish prisoners in the poblacion and discovered the hidden revolutionary fund, amounting to some 20,000 Mexican peso in silver coins. They all left for Lipa with the money before sunset.

1901 In the late period of the guerrilla war against the Americans, Gen. Malvar was in his hide-out in Rosario, directing the campaign. The town was burned together with the church and convent. Don Vicente Luna - a former municipal president and father of Gen. Malvar’s adjutant Luis Luna - was a helpless victim. His house was set on fire and his body thrown to the flames for not cooperating with the Americans . Concentration (zona) of civilians began.

1902 April 16 – Gen. Malvar with his family and aides, surrendered at the U. S. Army detachment in Sitio Balugbog of Baybayin, Rosario. On the same day they were escorted to Lipa and presented to Gen. Franklin Bell.

1902 June 9 – The seat of government of Rosario was officially transferred to Tombol. A new set of officals were elected with Don Geronimo Carandang as “presidente” and Don Diego Rosales as “bise presidente”. The old site became barrio Lumang Bayan.

1908 Led by Don Antonino Luancing, many prominent families in Rosario joined the Church Nationalist Movement of Bishop Gregorio Aglipay.

1909 The Roman Catholic church established its own parish in the new Rosario.

1922 Election of Venustiano Escano as municipal president to the 1st of his three consecutive terms. In his term, a unique water works system was constructed with a concrete water tank embedded on top of Tombol Hill.

1936 Dr. Crisanto A. Gualberto was elected alcalde and served Rosario until the end of the Pacific War in1945.

1941 A Philippine Army Training camp was put up in barrio San Roque early in the
year. Schools were immediately closed soon after the bombing of the Philippines by the Japanese planes. On December 8, evacuation started. The Chinese stores were looted shortly after the Japanese landed in Mauban and in Siain, Tayabas (Quezon) on Christmas eve.

1942 Early in January, the first sound of battle was heard in Rosario from the direction of Lusakan, Tiaong, Quezon. Japanese army units arrived in Rosario from Tiaong and from San Juan.

1943 The guerrilla movement wad introduced in Rosario by Jorge Espina. The units organized were led by Bataan veteran Galicano Luancing, Jr. and the Farols of Macalamcam

1944 Most difficult year of the war. Abduction was common among those suspected to be either pro-Japanese or pro-guerrilla. For the death of two Japanese soldiers, 2 policemen were executed in return on October 5. U. S. war planes began appearing in the sky. The Japanese blasted the surrounding bridges of the town, and finally their ammunition and equipment stored in the cave at the base of Tombol Hill, before leaving for Lipa.

1945 February 12 – marked the beginning of the massacre in Rosario. Five male residents of the town were the first victims. They were hacked and bayoneted to death by Japanese soldiers. In March, they burned the town.

1945 April – units of the 1st Cavalry Division, and of the 1855th Signal Corp, 11th Airborne Division liberated Rosario. Jose B. Zuño was appointed mayor. Dr. Crisanto A. Gualberto was arrested by the U. S. Army authorities and sent to Palawan prison camp on charges of collaboration.

1946 Founding of Padre Vicente Garcia Memorial Academy (PVGMA).

1947 Guerrilla leader, Isaac Farol won against veteran politician and war time alcalde, Dr. Gualberto, in the first post war election for mayor

1949 Lumang Bayan with several other barrios separated from Rosario to become the municipality of Padre Garcia

1950 At the height of the HUKBALAHAP movement in the region, Rosario was among the few towns the Huks dared not disturb. The town was armed camp at night.

1951 Guerilla Capt. Angel Arias, mayor Farol’s former Chief of Police ran against Mayor Farol's protégé, Teodoro Cuartero for mayor. Capt. Arias, who was supported by Dr. Crisanto Gualberto, won the election. Mayor-elect Angel Arias was shot dead December 23 – considered the first postwar politically-related incident.

1952 February 22 - Toedoro Cuartero, the loser in the election, too, met a violent death in barrio San Carlos.

1953 February 16 – First councilor Fortunato Inandan was appointed acting mayor for few days.

1953 July 9 – Guerilla Capt. Esteban de Guzman, then Chief of Police was gunned down in midtown. Charged for the murder of Capt. de Guzman were former Police Chief Guadencio Manigbasm, two policemen and several former guerilla members. The accused were all convicted of the crime. They were later pardoned.

1957 Construction of the RosarioMunicipal Hall was started from the pork barrel of House Speaker Laurel. Isabelita Comia was elected Councilor – the first lady councilor elected in Rosario.

1958 Chief of Police, Felicisimo H. Luna resigned to run against re-electionst Mayor Jose E. Agoncillo. Luna won the election.

1959 Mayor Luna assumed office and was successively re-elected. He was mayor of Rosario until his death on November 14, 1982.

1968 The Municipal Government of Rosario suffered from serious economic reverses. It lost to Padre Garcia the cattle auction market operations, now among the largest in the country. Fire gutted the public market then located in now Laurel Park.

1969 Resurgence of politically motivated violence. The residence of mayor Luna’s Chief of Police was peppered by bullets.

1970 An ambush occurred in Putingkahoy resulting in the death of Romeo Asa, son of a former candidate for mayor, Juan Asa.

1971 March 21 – Mayor Luna escaped death in an ambush in Ermita, Manila. A policeman escort died; a second escort was crippled.

1972 Martial law momentarily put a stop to the political violence in Rosario

1979 Rosario, a pre-war first class municipality had sunk to the 5th class position in the province.

1981 Multi-million peso agri-business enterprises started to invest in Rosario. Municipal income started to increase.

1982 Mountain part of Rosario was suspected to be a uranium area in a radiometric and geochemical survey by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in 1980. Sudden death of Mayor Luna. Vice Mayor Felimon Magracia succeeded him. Luna’s son, Antonio was appointed vice mayor.

1986 April- The Aquino Administration replaced Mayor Magracia with former Mayor Jose E. Agoncillo as OIC Mayor, and Vice Mayor Luna with Kapitan Doroy Guno as OIC Vice Mayor. Guno was shot dead in the municipal cockpit before he could assumed office. His son, Lito was appointed OIC Vice Mayor. Mrs. Marife C. Barrera was appointed mayor shortly before the election of 1987.

1987 Antonio T. Luna won the election against former Mayors Agoncillo and Magracia. Municipal economy began to improve. Rural Banks started to establish in Rosario.

1989 December 9 – Mayor Antonio T. Luna was assassinated.

1990 Station of the Cross Project at Tombol Hill was inaugurated. Rosario has been selected as one of the province’s special growth zone under the CALABARZON Project to be the center of Agro-Industrial Development in southeastern Batangas.

1994 Research of the history of Rosario was undertaken by this author on the directive of Mayor Rodolfo G. Villar.

1995 A Digest of the history of Rosario appeared in an article in Rosario Town Fiesta Souvenir Program – Rosario: Its Origin and Development

1996 March 5 – The Sangguniang Bayan declared the 9th day of June as Araw ng Rosario and every year thereafter, in Resolution No. 14-96.

1997 A 3-day celebration was held commemorating the 310th Foundation Year of Rosario. Hymno ng Rosario was adopted.

1999 The President of the Philippines issued Presidential Proclamation No. 88: Declaring June 9 of every year as “Araw ng Rosario” in the municipality of Rosario, Province of Batangas.

2001 Rosario regained its position as among the premiere towns of the province. Rosario elected its first lady chief executive Mayor Clotilde G. Villar.

2003 Rosario is presented to the Spanish-speaking world in the concluding chapters of the historical novel, “¡Olvidad Filipinas!” — about Spain’s last days in the Philippines and of the 17 Spanish prisoners of war in Rosario in 1899. Dr. Jose R. Gregorio, descendant of Rosario’s revolutionary leader Col. Melecio Bolaños and the town's historian Conrado T. Reyes were featured in the epilogue of the book.

2004 Various infrastructure projects were begun upon the assumption into office by Mayor Felipe A. Marquez. These include the construction of a sectionalized Public Market (through the assistance of Sen. Ralph G. recto), the renovation of the Municipal hall's facade and lobby, construction of Municipal Health Center and different farm-to-market roads, among others.

2005 The first Sinukmani Festival was held as part of the 10-day Foundation Anniversary Celebration of Rosario. This is part of the Administration's efforts to promote culture and tourism in the municipality.

2006 The second Sinukmani Festival was aired live in GMA-7's morning program, Unang Hirit. The Rosario Training and Livelihood Center was made operational. An assorment of new establishments opened in Poblacion area, further encouraging businessmen to invest in Rosario such as Bank of the Philippine Islands, South Star Drug, Andok's 24-hour Restaurant and Mercury Drug.

2007 The first Jollibbee Store in Rosario was inaugurated by Mayor Marquez. It was also in this year that computerization of the Permits & Licensing Division and Municipal Treasurer's Office became fully operational. Mayor Marquez was given a second mandate by his constituents in elections that also saw the victory of former Lipa City Mayor Vilma Santos-Recto as Provincial Governor of Batangas.

2008 The book “Rosario: Its Origins and History” was approved by members of the Municipal Culture and Arts Council for endorsement to the Department of Education for inclusion in the different schools in Rosario. Mayor Marquez immediately ordered the mass-production of the said book for distribution among public schools.


The author’s [Conrado T. Reyes] manuscript of the history of Rosario was the source of information for this chronology which has, among others, the following for References:

1. Scott, W.H. Pre-hispanic Source materials for the Study of Philippine History – 1968 second edition

2. Philippine Land and People Series, Handog No. 2

3. Duldulao M.D. The Filipino Portrait of a People

4. Constantino, R. The Philippine, A Past Revisited

5. Bayer and De Veyra - Pictorial History of the Philippines

6. Jose Regalado Trola, … Ancestral Churches in Batangas, Ayala Foundation Inc. 2003 (Book Project) Batangas Forged by Fire

7. The Cultural Traditional Media of the Philippines – Manila 1991

8. Sastron, Manuel, Filipinas Requineos Estudios Batangas y Su Provencia

9. May, Glenn Anthony, Battle for Batangas 1993

10. Angeler, Joseph Moya, ­­¡Olvidad Filipinas! (2003)

11. Respecio, Saturnino G., Article on: (a) Padre Vicente Garcia, and (b) I Witnessed the Surrender of Gen. Malvar, Related by Regina Malabanan Vda Zuno

Most of the events from 1936 are the personal accounts of the author [Conrado T. Reyes].

SOURCE: Rosario of Batangas: Its Origin and Developments, 2008 Edition. Reprinted by permission of the author, Conrado T. Reyes.

NB: This article was reprinted in recognition of the efforts of the late Ka Rading Reyes to compile a chronology of events relevant to the evolution of Rosario both as community and as an important entity of governance in this part of the province of Batangas.

Minor editing like typographical corrections and rearrangements of text without modification of its content have been made by Rosario Batangas Information signifying that only superficial differences exist between this online article and the original source.

The contents of this article have not been verified independently by Rosario Batangas Information. Reader's discretion is advised.

Friday, November 18, 2011

Infrastructure and Utilities Sector: Communication

The information contained in this article were based on the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of Rosario, Batangas for the planning period 2000-2010 and were current in 1999 except in places where updates were duly noted.

THIS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE reports about three major sectors including the Social Sector, the Economic Sector and Infrastructure and Utilities Sector. The Infrastructure and Utilities Sector consists of the following sub-sectors: transportation, water supply, power services, and communication. This article covers the Communication Sub-Sector.

The forms of communication available in the municipality include telecommunication services and facilities, broadcast media and print media. These provide facility of communication, exchange of ideas and foster awareness and consciousness on issues affecting their daily lives.

Telecommunication Services and Facilities
Telecommunication services and facilities include telephone, telex, telegraphic transfer, postal services and other telecommunication services.

Telephone Services
Digital Telecommunication Philippines, Incorporated is the franchise holder of the telephone services and facilities in the municipality. The management office is in Barangay Poblacion B and the service areas include Barangay Poblacion A to E, Namuco, Itlugan, Namunga, Maalas-as, Masaya, San Ignacio, Bagong Pook, San Carlos, San Roque, Quilib, Tiquiwan and Sambat in Baybayin. Type of system is NEAXX GIE, with switching facilities and a capacity of 3,163 lines.

The current existing subscribers are 1,655 lines. There are about 1,508 lines still available for subscription.

Considering the total number of households of 15,636, this indicates only about 9.64% are subscribing to said telephone service franchised.

Telegraph Services
Lone personnel, the telegraph operator manages the telegraph office of the Bureau of Telecommunication in the municipality. The Telecommunications Office share office space with the postal service. The volume of messages sent and received are as follows:

Volume of Messages Sent and Received by the Telegraph Office: 1997, 1998 and 1999
  • Telegram Sent - 966
  • Telegram Received - 716
  • Telegram Received - 507
  • Relay Telegram - 333
  • Free Telegram Filed - 203
  • Received Telegram Filed - 139
  • Telegram Received - 436
  • Relay Telegram - 342
  • Free Telegram Filed - 162
  • Received Telegram Filed - 109
Source: Department of Transportation and Telecommunications, Rosario, Batangas

It can be noted that volume of messages transacted is on a decreasing pattern. The population, due to availability of land line phones and mobile phones, widely prefer to use this mode pf communication. Hence, use of telegraph facilities was minimal.

Postal Services
The local post office staffed by 10 people is rendering postal services. It is headed by a postmaster, and is being assisted by one postman teller, one dispatching clerk and seven (7) letter carriers.

The Postal Office is within the town hall building. Facilities include only one mailbox and seven (7) motorcycles considered private since they are owned by the letter carriers.

The volume of letter dispatched and received by the office from 1997 to 1999 are as follows:

Volume of Letter Dispatched/Received at the Postal Office: 1997, 1998 and 1999
  • Dispatched - 197,901
  • Registered Mail - 11,003
  • Special Delivery - 38,245
  • Air Mail - 68,949
  • Priority Mail - 27,670
  • Ordinary Mail - 48,534
  • Express Mail - 3,500
  • Received - 247,203
  • Registered Mail - 22,984
  • Special Delivery - 40,246
  • Air Mail - 73,469
  • Priority Mail - 30,204
  • Ordinary Mail - 78,200
  • Express Mail - 1,600
  • Parcels - 500
  • Dispatched - 225,704
  • Registered Mail - 17,323
  • Special Delivery - 43,500
  • Air Mail - 74,200
  • Priority Mail - 32,645
  • Ordinary Mail - 52,836
  • Express Mail - 5,200
  • Received - 286,761
  • Registered Mail - 26,748
  • Special Delivery - 48,532
  • Air Mail - 81,946
  • Priority Mail - 40,328
  • Ordinary Mail - 83,546
  • Express Mail - 4,987
  • Parcels - 674
  • Dispatched - 241,527
  • Registered Mail - 18,535
  • Special Delivery - 45,300
  • Air Mail - 76,900
  • Priority Mail - 35,745
  • Ordinary Mail - 58,847
  • Express Mail - 6,200
  • Received - 300,471
  • Registered Mail - 28,849
  • Special Delivery - 50,634
  • Air Mail - 85,942
  • Priority Mail - 44,328
  • Ordinary Mail - 84,634
  • Express Mail - 5,430
  • Parcels - 654
Source: Philippine Postal Corporation, Rosario, Batangas

It can be noted that communication through letters is still prevalent in the municipality. All types of postal services in terms of letter dispatched and received are on an increasing trend.
With seven (7) letter carriers, the permanent letter carrier to population ratio is one letter carrier for every 11,731 population. This is way below the standard of 1 letter carrier per 5,000 population.

Other Telecommunication Services and Facilities
Other telecommunication services and facilities are public calling station, and private pay phone stations. There are about ten (10) of this telephone calling stations/booths scattered in strategic location in the Poblacion Barangays, and other adjacent barangays.

There are 2 in Barangay Poblacion B; 1 in Barangay Poblacion C; 2 in Barangay Poblacion D; 1 in Barangay Poblacion E; 1 in San Ignacio; 1 in Maalas-as and 2 in Namunga. These are operated and owned by DIGITEL, PLDT and Liberty Telephone, Inc.

There are also cell sites that service the mobile cellphones in the area. These cell sites were being operated and managed by mobile phone franchisees like SMART Communication Inc. and GLOBE Telecom, Inc.

There are private fax machines that offer fax services both local and international. Email communication through Internet services of privately owned computers are also available.

Broadcast Media
There are no broadcast media stations in the municipality. However, all broadcast stations in Metro Manila, Batangas City, Lucena City and Lipa City can be hooked up and heard in the municipality.

The same is true for all television stations in Metro Manila. They can all be simulcast and seen in the municipality.

For more choices of TV stations and better quality viewing, cable television services is also available. The Rosario Batangas Cable TV Services, Inc. at Barangay Namunga is the cable television service provider. It occupies 459 square meters of land. Area of coverage includes Bagong Pook, Namunga, Itlugan and Quilib. It has about 500 subscribers.

Print Media
Most newspapers, magazine, tabloids and printed materials for the general public consumption is available in the municipality. National newspapers such as Philippine Daily Inquirer, Manila Bulletin, Philippine Star and Times Journal are available daily from Metro Manila. These media make the citizenry of Rosario aware and conscious of what is happening around them by having access to national and international news.

In all these forms of communication, only telephone services and postal services need to be made accessible to the population. With the standard of 1 telephone connection per 5 households, there is a current need for a total of 3,127 telephone connections.

Considering, the present number of 1,655 DIGITEL subscribers, there is an additional current need for 1,472 lines. The available DIGITEL lines are more than adequate. Capacity to pay of each household for telephone connection is the challenge to be considered in the economics base sectors of the plan.

With the projected number of households reaching 20,080 by year 2010, there should be a total of 4,016 telephone connections by then. With the present subscribers of 1,655, future requirement is 2,361 connections.

In terms of postal services, the increasing volume of messages and letters being transacted show that it is useful to the population. In fact, a large portion of the population take advantage of these services. Consequently, there is a need to improve their services, as well as to make these services more accessible to the people.

Improvement in terms of office space and equipment must be considered. Equipment and facilities such as mail distribution centers, postal stations/circuits, money order machine and stamping machine (meter) and most specially mail transport vehicles must be given priority.

These facilities should be acquired in good, updated and state-of-the-art quality to sustain the trust and confidence of the clientele: the general public.

In terms of letter carrier to population, the prevent ratio of 1:11,731 which falls short of the standard one letter carrier per 5,000 population. Thus, currently the required number of letter- carriers should be 16, thus there is shortage of 9 letter carriers. Considering the projected population up to year 2010, the projected number of letter carriers is 21 people. With the current 7 letter carriers, a total of 14 more letter carriers are needed by year 2010. Hiring can be staggered within the planning period attaining a total of 21 letter carrier by year 2010.

Mail transport vehicle should be correspondingly improved. One vehicle per letter carrier must be provided. The postal office must prioritize acquisition of vehicle for use of the postal letter carriers. These will further improve the quality of postal services to the population.

Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines

Infrastructure and Utilities Sector: Power Services

The information contained in this article were based on the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of Rosario, Batangas for the planning period 2000-2010 and were current in 1999 except in places where updates were duly noted.

THIS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE reports about three major sectors including the Social Sector, the Economic Sector and Infrastructure and Utilities Sector. The Infrastructure and Utilities Sector consists of the following sub-sectors: transportation, water supply, power services, and communication. This article covers the Power Services Sub-Sector.

FUEL USED for lighting and cooking provide useful information on determining what type does the population most commonly use. It can be electricity, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas and other types. Adequacy and inadequacy of the type commonly used can also be determined.

Fuel Used for Lighting
The primary survey conducted shows that electricity as type of fuel used for lighting is used by 60% of the total household. Kerosene users constitute 20% and those with privately owned generator sets or motors is about 1% of the total household. About 19% were not able to state the type of fuel they used for lighting.

In the urban barangays, 66% are electricity users; 2% are kerosene users; 1% have generator sets or motors; and 31.7% are not stated.

Households that uses electricity outside of the urban barangays constitutes about 60% of the total rural households. Those that use kerosene are about 21%. Only 1 percent has generator sets or motors and 18% are not stated.

Households by Type of Fuel Used for Lighting, 1999
Type of Fuel Used, Total Households and Percent to Total
  • Electricity - 9,445 households - 60.4%
  • Kerosene - 3,034 households - 19.4%
  • Motor - 211 households - 1.3%
  • Not Stated - 2,946 households - 18.8%
  • Total - 15,636 - 100%
Source: Municipal Access and Innovations Database (MASID), Office for Sustainable Development, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas

Fuel Used for Cooking
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is the major kind of fuel used for cooking by households in the municipality. About 56.14% of households used LPG. It is still remarkable that earthen stone using wood and charcoal and kerosene stoves are still used by a large percentage of households representing about 41.43%. Only a small percentage of the total households use electricity for cooking.

There are more users of electricity and liquefied petroleum gas for cooking among urban households than rural households. Stoves using kerosene, charcoal and wood and liquefied petroleum gas are most commonly used by households in rural areas.

Households by Type of Fuel Used for Cooking, 1999
Type of Fuel Used, Total Households and Percent to Total
  • Electricity - 389 households - 2.5%
  • Stove (kerosene, charcoal and wood) - 6,408 households - 41.0%
  • Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) - 8,839 households - 56.5%
  • Total - 15,636 households - 100.0%
Source: Municipal Access and Innovations Database (MASID), Office for Sustainable Development, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas

Electric Service
Electric services is being provided by the Batangas II Electric Cooperative, Inc. (BATELEC II) with main office at Lipa City and a sub office at the municipality. Facilities include two sub-stations at barangays San Roque and Masaya with primary metering facility and 567 streetlights.

BATELEC II has a total of 8,812 consumers in the municipality. Residential consumers constitute 92% of the total. Commercial establishments rank second constituting about 6% of the total consumers of electricity.

Of the total 48 barangays, 43 are actually and currently energized; 3 are newly energized but households served are not yet reported and 2 are still for energization. Barangays actually and currently energized have total household of 14,677. Of these 9,718 or 66.21% are served on subscribers of BATELEC II while the remaining 33.71% are still to be connected to power services. The following shows household served and unserved by power supply by barangay.

Households Served and Unserved by Power Supply by Barangay Municipality of Rosario, Batangas: 1999
Barangay and Number of Households Served by Power Supply
  • Poblacion A, B, C, D and E - 1,265
  • Alupay - 373
  • Bagong Pook - 598
  • Balibago - 216
  • Bayawang - 220
  • Bulihan - 328
  • Cahigam - 144
  • Calantas - 116
  • Colongan and Timbugan - 422
  • Itlugan and Namuco - 593
  • Leviste - 77
  • Lumbangan - 121
  • Maalas-as - 266
  • Mabato and Maligaya - 260
  • Macalamcam A and B - 242
  • Malaya - 181
  • Marilag - 143
  • Masaya and Namunga - 889
  • Mavalor - 156
  • Mayuro - 214
  • Pinagsibaan, Salao & Puting Kahoy - 703
  • Quilib - 256
  • San Carlos and Tiquiwan - 582
  • San Ignacio - 192
  • San Isidro - 125
  • San Jose - 257
  • Sn. Roque - 515
  • Sta. Cruz - 183
  • Tulos - 81
  • Total - 9,718
Barangay and Number of Households Unserved by Power Supply
  • Poblacion A, B, C, D and E - 171
  • Alupay - 212
  • Bagong Pook - 128
  • Balibago - 44
  • Bulihan - 171
  • Cahigam - 200
  • Calantas - 156
  • Colongan and Timbugan - 167
  • Itlugan and Namuco - 644
  • Leviste - 159
  • Lumbangan - 64
  • Maalas-as - 1
  • Mabato and Maligaya - 104
  • Macalamcam A and B - 212
  • Malaya - 50
  • Marilag - 182
  • Mavalor - 57
  • Mayuro - 102
  • Pinagsibaan, Salao & Puting Kahoy - 394
  • Quilib - 130
  • San Carlos and Tiquiwan - 161
  • San Ignacio - 66
  • San Isidro - 366
  • Sta. Cruz - 200
  • Tulos - 265
  • Total - 5,036
Source: Batangas II Electric Cooperative, Inc., Lipa City

Of the urban households, 88% are served while 12% are unserved. For the rural household about 64% are served while 36%t remain unserved.

The three newly energized barangays are Mabunga, Matamis and Palakpak. Their data on households served has not been uploaded into the system yet. The two barangays targeted for energization are Antipolo and Nasi.

Other consumers/subscribers registered with BATELEC II are commercial establishments (497), industrial firms (3), residential-commercial mixed (40), and CWS (8). There are also 47 Barangay Power Associations (BAPAs) being supervised by BATELEC II. The government entities as subscribers are liable for public buildings (72) and streetlights (17). Thus, there are a total of 684 other consumers.

Together with household connections of 9,778, the power services consumers are 10,402 in total.

The average monthly consumption for residential connection is 95 kilowatt per hour per month.

The following shows other types of connection, number of connections and average consumption (kWh/month)

Number of Connections by Type of Users and Average Consumption (kWh/mo.), 1999
Type of Connection, Number of Connections and Total Consumption (kWh/mo.)
  • Industrial - 3 connections - 164,520 kWh/mo.
  • Commercial - 497 connections - 503,543 kWh/mo.
  • Public Building - 72 connections - 21,226 kWh/mo.
  • Streetlights (Public) - 17 connections - 29,867 kWh/mo.
  • Others:
  • Residential-Commercial - 40 connections - 11,571 kWh/mo.
  • CWS - 8 connections - 25,259 kWh/mo.
  • BAPA - 47 connections - 89,682
Total - 684 connections - 845,668 kWh/mo.

Type of Connection and Average Consumption (kWh/mo.)
  • Industrial - 54,840 kWh/mo.
  • Commercial - 1,013 kWh/mo.
  • Public Building - 295 kWh/mo.
  • Streetlights (Public) - 1,757 kWh/mo.
  • Others:
  • Residential-Commercial - 289 kWh/mo.
  • CWS - 3,157 kWh/mo.
  • BAPA - 1,908 kWh/mo.
Source: Batangas II Electric Cooperative, Inc., Lipa City

Considering the total households of 15,636 and assuming the same percentage of household served in the newly energized barangays, there is a need for 5,036 households more to be served in the current year and two (2) more barangays to be energized.

With the average consumption of residential connections of 95 kWh/mo., the power requirement is about 501,885 kilowatts per mo. Considering the projected household by year 2010, the total power requirements for residential household connections is 1,907,600 kilowatts per month.

Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines

Infrastructure and Utilities Sector: Water Supply

The information contained in this article were based on the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of Rosario, Batangas for the planning period 2000-2010 and were current in 1999 except in places where updates were duly noted.

THIS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE reports about three major sectors including the Social Sector, the Economic Sector and Infrastructure and Utilities Sector. The Infrastructure and Utilities Sector consists of the following sub-sectors: transportation, water supply, power services, and communication. This article covers the Water Supply Sub-Sector.

Waterworks System
The waterworks system of Rosario, considered as a level III water supply service is being operated and managed by the Rosario Water District. The system source its water from barangays San Roque , Quilib, Bagong Pook, Namunga and Tombol Hill in Poblacion B.

There are 6 interconnected pumps, with each source having one pump each, except with Tombol Hill with 2 pumps. The total capacity of these source and pumps is about 49 liters per second or 4,233,600 liters per day. There are total of ten (10) barangays covered with 60 percent of the total households in those barangays served by the system and 40 percent unserved.

Location of Water Sources, Capacity and Service Coverage of Waterworks System Municipality of Rosario, Batangas: 1999
  • Poblacion B (2 pumps) in Tombol Hill - 1,036,800 liters/day covering Poblacion A, B, C, D & E serving 1,207 households
  • Namunga - 1,296,000 liters/day covering Namunga serving 137 households and Namuco serving 120 households
  • San Roque - 604,800 liters/day covering San Roque serving 457 households
  • Quilib - 604,800 liters/day covering Quilib serving 327 households
  • Bagong Pook - 691,200 liters/day covering Bagong Pook serving 219 households
Total of 6 pumps - 4,233,600 liters/days covering 10 barangays serving 2,467 households
Source: Rosario Water District

There are only three types of consumers noted by the water districts. There are domestic, commercial and semi-commercial connections. Domestic consumers are the major consumers. The following shows number of connection and average water consumption by type of consumers.

Number of Connections and Average Water Consumption by Type of Consumer Municipality of Rosario, Batangas: 2000
Number of Connections
  • Domestic - 2,155
  • Commercial - 146
  • Semi Commercial A - 9
  • Semi Commercial B - 54
  • Semi Commercial C - 103
Average Water Consumption
  • Domestic - 25.18 cubic meters
  • Commercial - 29.69 cubic meters
  • Semi Commercial A - 17.55 cubic meters
  • Semi Commercial B - 22.61 cubic meters
  • Semi Commercial C - 21.44 cubic meters
Source: Rosario Water District

The standard water demand requirement for residential consumer of level III water supply system as developed by the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) is 100-110 liters per capita per day (lcpd) per individual connection. With the current domestic or residential connections of 2,155 households with an average household member of 5 persons, the required volume of water for residential consumption is 1,185,250 liters per day.

For commercial/industrial connections the standard is 1.0-2.0 m3/day/connection. With the present number of commercial and semi-commercial connection, the requirements are 624 m3/day.

With present total type of consumers/connection of existing waterworks system, the requirements is 1,809,250 liters per capita per day. Considering the present capacity, which is 4,233,600 Lcpd, the present system is adequate. There is still an excess of 2,424,350 liters. The system had just been expanded and is still in the process of registering new subscribers and customers for wider coverage.

Level I System
The majority of the population about 86% get water from level I sources such as individual water system with generated and tank tubed/piped deep wells, shallow wells, dug wells, spring, lake, river and rain water. There are also water peddlers that delivers water to households. Household survey shows that there are about 4,602 households that get water from faucets of individual water system put by each household with own generating unit and water tank. Dug wells are the least source of water supply with 252 households during water from said sources of water supply.

Sources of Level I Water Supply Services Municipality of Rosario, Batangas: 1999
Type of Water Source, Number of Households and Percent to Total
  • Faucets (Industrial Water System) - 4,602 households - 34%
  • Deep wells/Shallow wells - 4,206 households - 31%
  • Dug wells - 252 households - 2%
  • Rainwater and Springs - 1,450 households - 11%
  • Peddlers - 2,971 households - 22%
  • Total 13,481 households - 100%
Source: Municipal Access and Innovations Database (MASID), Office for Sustainable Development, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas

The current situation in water supply service can be said to be adequate in some aspects but is generally inadequate. The present waterworks system has a capacity of 4,233,600 liters per day, while based on listed consumers, the total consumption is only 1,809,250 liters per day, thus an excess of 2,424,250 liters per day. The system can still accommodate about 4,408 households.

Considering the present residential connection as households and the additional 4,408 households that can still be accommodated in the system, the total households to be served by the system will be 6,523 or 41% only of the total . The remainder has to source water from other water supply service sources.

This is based on water demand standard requirement developed by the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) of 100-110 liters per capita per day per residential individual household connection and 1–2 cubic meters per day for commercial and industrial connections. These standards are for level III water supply services.

For purposes of future requirements, there is a need to plan and program an overall water supply service system that will provide adequate and accessible water supply service to the population.

Expansion of present capacity of waterworks system, establishment of Level III water supply service and provision of equipment and facilities for level I point and distribution.

Studies and research on other sources of water is also necessary to augment present facility. Tapping of potential water sources is also recommended.

Developing of new watershed areas and preservation of existing ones are ecological measures that can be done to maintain water resources in the areas. These can be done through tree planting, reforestation and forestation of elevated areas.

In areas with slopes 18% and above, forest plantations can be established. In watershed areas, vegetative measures and structural measures should be constructed to ensure abundant supply of water even during dry season especially around Tombol Hill at Barangay Poblacion B and San Roque.

Environmental Sanitation must be maintained to sustain potability and water quality of water resources both ground and surface water.

Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines

Infrastructure and Utilities Sector: Transportation

The information contained in this article were based on the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of Rosario, Batangas for the planning period 2000-2010 and were current in 1999 except in places where updates were duly noted.

THIS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE reports about three major sectors including the Social Sector, the Economic Sector and Infrastructure and Utilities Sector. The Infrastructure and Utilities Sector consists of the following sub-sectors: transportation, water supply, power services, and communication. This article covers the Transportation Sub-Sector.

Circulation System

Urban and Rural Population

The urban areas have a population of 7,177 and 74,938 population in the rural barangays. The Batangas-Quezon National Road serves as the main development spine, connecting on the east to San Juan and on the west to Ibaan. Neighboring municipalities such as Lipa City, Padre Garcia and Taysan are connected to the Poblacion by the provincial roads. Barangay roads are perpendicularly inter-linked to the provincial roads.

Land Transportation: Road Network
Inventory of Roads
As of 1999, the total road kilometerage is 386.49 kilometers. Occupying a total land area of 27,923.6687 hectares. This shows a road density of 1.38 kilometer per 100 hectare of land. The road system is classified into national (19.64 kilometers) Provincial (69.49 kilometers) municipal (6.736 kilometers) and barangay (290,624 kilometers).

With regards to the type of pavement, 16.40% have concrete paved surfaces while the remaining 83.6% are on-going concreting. Provincial roads are 16.89% concreted, 0.79% asphalt and 82.31% gravel. Municipal streets are 100% concreted. A big percentage (50.24%) of barangay roads is gravel. Next is 40.22% by earth filled.

On-going municipal infrastructure projects are concentrated on the construction and improvement of the national, provincial and municipal roads. Most barangay roads are being funded from their respective internal revenue allotments, which are very meager for the completion of their current needs.

Summary of Roads by Administrative Classification and Length (in kilometers), 1999
  • National - 19.640 km km
  • Provincial - 69.490 km
  • Municipal - 6.736 km
  • Barangay - 290.624 km
  • Total - 386.490 km
Source: Department of Public Works and Highways

Inventory of Roads by Administrative Classification, 1999
Road Name and Length (in kilometers)

National Road
  • Quilib-Puting Kahoy - 15.940 km
  • Poblacion-San Ignacio - 3.700 km
  • Sub-Total National - 19.640 km
Provincial Road
  • Mavalor Road - 4.940 km
  • Old Rosario Market Road - 1.000 km
  • Calle Marquez Garcia - 0.200 km
  • Masaya-Timbugan-Colongan Road - 3.200 km
  • Rosario-Taysan Road - 7.600 km
  • Mabayabas-Cahigam-Jct. Baybayin - 8.300 km
  • Lumbangan-Mayuro Road - 6.500 km
  • Mayuro-Bayawang Road - 3.500 km
  • San Carlos-Pulo-Maugat Road - 6.000 km
  • Baybayin-Mabato-Pinagsibaan - 8.700 km
  • Natu-Maugat road - 2.700 km
  • Alupay Cemetery Road - 4.050 km
  • Pinagsibaan-Salao Road - 5.000 km
  • Puting-Kahoy-Tulos-Matamis - 7.800 km
  • Sub-Total Provincial - 69.490 km
Municipal Road
  • Magtibay St. - 0.560 km
  • L. Greñas St. - 0.480 km
  • I. Farol St. - 0.080 km
  • V. Rodelas St. - 0.340 km
  • E. Zuño St. - 1.200 km
  • J. Belen St. - 1.020 km
  • Y. Zuño St. - 1.010 km
  • V. Escano St. - 0.320 km
  • Buquir St. - 0.070 km
  • C. Alday St. - 0.200 km
  • H. Mindanao St. - 0.330 km
  • A. Sevilla St. - 0.130 km
  • L. Esguerra St. - 0.148 km
  • E. Carreon St. - 0.150 km
  • N. Suarez St. - 0.150 km
  • L. Tejada St. - 0.330 km
  • L. Cuartero St. - 0.098 km
  • A. Arias St. - 0.120 km
  • Sub-Total Municipal - 6.736 km
Barangay Road
  • Alupay - 1.700 km
  • Antipolo - 9.390 km
  • Bagong Pook - 2.400 km
  • Balibago - 3.300 km
  • Bayawang - 9.100 km
  • Baybayin - 4.500 km
  • Bulihan - 18.000 km
  • Cahigam - 3.399km
  • Calantas - 10.500 km
  • Colongan - 3.281 km
  • Itlugan - 3.000 km
  • Leviste - 9.500 km
  • Lumbangan - 2.500 km
  • Maalas-as - 3.600 km
  • Mabato - 5.400 km
  • Mabunga - 6.200 km
  • Macalamcam A - 7.500 km
  • Macalamcam B - 8.000 km
  • Malaya - 2.500 km
  • Maligaya - 3.500 km
  • Marilag - 4.800 km
  • Masaya - 7.000 km
  • Matamis - 29.000 km
  • Mavalor - 4.000 km
  • Mayuro - 9.250 km
  • Namuco - 18.900 km
  • Namunga - 5.500 km
  • Nasi - 4.000 km
  • Natu - 8.300 km
  • Palakpak - 2.000 km
  • Pinagsibaan - 2.000 km
  • Puting-Kahoy - 6.000 km
  • Quilib - 1.330 km
  • Salao - 5.274 km
  • San Carlos - 7.800 km
  • San Ignacio - 13.700 km
  • San Isidro - 19.500 km
  • San Jose - 4.500 km
  • San Roque - 1.300 km
  • Sta. Cruz - 5.200 km
  • Timbugan - 5.000 km
  • Tiquiwan - 2.000 km
  • Tulos - 7.000 km
  • Sub-Total Barangay - 132.554 km
Source: Office of the Municipal Engineer, Rosario, Batangas

Inventory of Bridges
There are eighteen (18) concrete bridges, twenty-three (23) timber (wood) bridges and five (5) other types of construction materials.

The concrete bridges located at Barangays Natu, Colongan, San Carlos, San Roque, Tiquiwan, Bagong Pook, Pinagsibaan, Itlugan, Maalas-as and Namunga.

The timber wood bridges located at Barangays Balibago, Bayawang Cahigam, Itlugan, Mabunga, Mavalor, Puting Kahoy, San Carlos, San Roque, Timbugan, Bulihan, Cahigam, Macalamcam, Puting Kahoy, Tulos and Matamis.

All bridges are passable to the public commuters, residents, and farmers who had taken the route.

Existing Bridges, Location and Type of Construction Materials Used, 1999
Bridge Name, Location and Length (in meters)
National Administration
  • Pinagsibaan Bridge in Pinagsibaan - 25.00 m
  • Pinagsibaan Bridge in Pinagsibaan - 25.00 m
  • Bagong Pook 1 in Bagong Pook - 11.37 m
  • Bagong Pook 2 in Bagong Pook - 6.60 m
  • Macalamcam Bridge in Bagong Pook - 6.07 m
  • Sub-Total National - 74.04 m
Provincial Administration
  • Maalas-as Bridge in Maalas-as - 48.00 m
  • Itlugan Bridge in Itlugan - 10.00 m
  • Namunga Bridge 2 in Namunga - 8.40 m
  • Maalas-as Bridge in Maalas-as - 8.00 m
  • Namunga Bridge 1 in Namunga - 5.00 m
  • Lawaye Bridge in Puting Kahoy - 42.00 m
  • Nazi Bridge in Nasi - 33.00 4.20 m
  • Buho Bridge in Matamis - 27.00 4.20 m
  • Macalamcam Bridge 108+740 in Macalamcam - 8.25 m
  • Bayawang Bridge 133+500 in Bayawang - 6.70 m
  • Cahigam 107+760 in Cahigam - 6.00 m
  • Bulihan 106+000 in Bulihan - 4.00 m
  • Bulihan 106+100 in Bulihan - 4.00 m
  • Cahigam 107+460 in Cahigam - 3.50 m
  • Paninsingin Bridge in Masaya -
  • Sub-Total Provincial - 213.85 m
Barangay Administration
  • Sitio Gitna in Colongan - 20.00 m
  • Sitio Avocado (2) in Colongan - 14.00 m
  • Sitio Gitna Natu-San Carlos in Natu - 10.00 m
  • V. Barbosa (1) in San Roque - 10.00 m
  • Sitio Pinagpala in San Carlos - 7.00 m
  • Bukang Liwayway in Tiquiwan - 6.00 m
  • Tiquiwan Bridge in Tiquiwan - 6.00 m
  • Sitio Avocado (1) in Colongan - 3.50 m
  • Sitio Cogonan in Bayawang - 15.00 m
  • Sitio Sampalukan (2) in San Carlos - 12.00 m
  • Timbugan Bridge (1) in Timbugan - 12.00 m
  • Sitio Sampalukan (1) in San Carlos - 10.00 m
  • Kapitan Manuel in San Roque - 10.00 m
  • V. Barbosa (2) in San Roque - 10.00 m
  • Sitio Silangan in Timbugan - 10.00 m
  • Sitio Balbanirahan in Cahigam - 8.00 m
  • Sitio Kanluran in Mabunga - 8.00 m
  • Sitio Sampalokan in Puting kahoy - 8.00 m
  • Sitio Guijo in Itlugan - 8.00 m
  • Balibago - Macalamcam A in Balibago - 6.00 m
  • Sitio Palayan in Mavalor - 6.00 m
  • Timbugan Bridge (2) in Timbugan - 6.00 m
  • Sitio Silangan Mabunga - 16.00 m
  • Malaya-Marilag in Marilag - 15.00 m
  • Sitio Mauricio in Bulihan - 8.00 m
  • Sitio Avocado (3) in Colongan - 6.00 m
  • Sitio Kanluran in Timbugan - 6.00 m
  • Sub-Total Barangay - 93 m
Source: Department of Public Works and Highways

Trends in Traffic Volume
The trends in traffic volume particularly in the Central Business District located at Barangay Poblacion B, C, D and E are heavy traffic especially Friday the market day.

Inventory of Motor Vehicles
Mode of transportation of the municipality of Rosario are motorcycles/ tricycles (33.63%) of the total land transport vehicles both private and public utility vehicles, light vehicles (51.91%), bicycle (16.83%), trucks/ heavy trucks (2.22%), tractor (3.57%), kalesa/kariton (2.45%) and Kubota and others (4.97%).

Inventory of Land Transport Vehicles, 1999
  • Light Vehicles - 1,777
  • Motorcycle/Tricycle - 1,421
  • Bicycle - 576
  • Trucks/Heavy Trucks - 76
  • Tractor - 122
  • Kalesa/Kariton - 84
  • Kubota - 53
  • Others - 117
  • Total - 4,226
Source: Municipal Access and Innovations Database (MASID)

Private vehicles are more numerous than public vehicles. Public transport include Supreme and Barney Bus Lines plying the route of Batangas City-Lucena City and Batangas City-Tagkawayan respectively; JAM Liner plying the route of Candelaria-LRT Buendia, via San Juan, Rosario and Lipa City everyday in the morning; tricycles servicing residents within the Poblacion and nearby barangays.

Trucks transport farm produce particularly sugarcane to Canlubang, Laguna, and Balayan and Nasugbu, Batangas; trailer and dump trucks carrying construction materials often traverse the town major thorough fares.

Transport Facilities
Public Utility jeepneys plying the route of Rosario-Batangas City utilize the parking lot of Shoppersmart along Gualberto Avenue. Rosario-Taysan jeepneys have a terminal in the market site at Barangay Poblacion E.

The Rosario-Lipa jeepneys utilize the loading and unloading area at Barangay Poblacion C; also the San Juan-Lipa City jeepneys passing by along Gualberto Ave.

Public utility tricycles likewise have a designated station or area for different barangay routes in the Poblacion area. They are located in the place accessible to the people and may not cause traffic hazard for the public.

Land Area
Total Area, Agricultural Land and Built-Up Areas, 1999
The municipality of Rosario has a total land area of 27,923.6687 hectares, while its agricultural land area is 10,263.27 hectares, and 753.4311 for built-up areas.

Land Area and Uses, 1999
  • Total Land Area - 27,923.6687 has. - 100.00%
  • Arable Land/Agricultural Area- 10,263.2700 has. - 36.75%
  • Built-Up Area - 753.4311 has. - 2.70%
Source: Land Use Sector

Problem Areas
Road Accidents Frequency and Location, 1999
Urban Barangays
  • Poblacion A - 11
  • Poblacion B - 7
  • Poblacion C - 13
  • Poblacion D - 11
  • Poblacion E - 10
  • Sub-Total Urban - 52
Rural Barangays
  • Antipolo - 17
  • Balibago - 29
  • Bulihan - 15
  • Calantas - 2
  • Leviste - 11
  • Mabato - 5
  • Masaya - 8
  • Namuco - 11
  • Namunga - 13
  • Natu - 11
  • Pinagsibaan - 5
  • Puting Kahoy - 11
  • Quilib - 8
  • San Carlos - 18
  • San Ignacio - 8
  • San Jose - 11
  • San Roque - 12
  • Tiquiwan - 7
  • Sub-Total Rural - 202
Grand Total - 254

Source: Philippine National Police (PNP)

Location, Nature and Frequency, 1999
Urban Barangays
  • Vehicle to Vehicle - 22
  • Vehicle to Pedestrian - 12
  • Vehicle to Animal - 0
  • Vehicle to Property - 6
  • Fatality - 0
  • Injury - 12
  • Damage - PHP6,500.00
  • Sub-Total Urban - 52
Rural Barangays
  • Vehicle to Vehicle - 85
  • Vehicle to Pedestrian - 27
  • Vehicle to Animal - 2
  • Vehicle to Property - 29
  • Fatality - 6
  • Injury - 53
  • Damage - PHP119,600.00
  • Sub-Total Rural - 202
  • Vehicle to Vehicle - 107
  • Vehicle to Pedestrian - 39
  • Vehicle to Animal - 2
  • Vehicle to Property - 39
  • Fatality - 6
  • Injury - 53
  • Damage - PHP126,100.00
  • Grand Total - 254
Source: Philippine National Police (PNP)

With a total road length of 386.49 kilometers and a total land area of 27, 923.6687 hectares, the existing road to land ratio is 1.38 kilometers per 100 hectares. Comparing this with the standard ratio of 1 kilometer per 100 hectares it is clear that the municipality is above the general standard.

Exceeding the standard, however does not mean that road construction shall not be conducted. This will actually depend on the need that will arise in the coming years.

In line with the development thrust is the area, more roads are expected to be constructed depending on the needs of the project. It should be noted however, that the roads to be constructed should align with existing road network.

Among all the roads, the barangay roads appear to be needing priority attention with regards to road improvement and maintenance since as mentioned earlier 83.6% are still gravel/earth fill improvement of such road will improve the accessibility/ mobility of residents in the rural portion of the municipality.

Although the majority of the national and municipal roads are generally in good condition, it is essential that they be properly maintained to ensure convenience and safety for the commuting public motorists.

Other projects that should be given utmost attention are the continuation of concreting of barangay roads and continuation of construction of drainage canal of municipal roads.

And lastly, the Local Government should also aim to improve its external/internal linkages in order to facilitate the movements of goods and people within and outside the municipality.

Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines

Economic Sector: Industry

The information contained in this article were based on the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of Rosario, Batangas for the planning period 2000-2010 and were current in 1999 except in places where updates were duly noted.

THIS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE reports about three major sectors including the Social Sector, the Economic Sector and Infrastructure and Utilities Sector. The Economic Sector consists of the following sub-sectors: agriculture, tourism, commerce and industry. This article covers the Industry Sub-Sector.

Industrial development must consider full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets.

There are thirteen existing industrial establishments in the municipality. Except for Puyat Steel Corporation, all industries are agri-based. These are the food processing industry, feed mills and oil manufacturer. Eleven of these establishments are classified small-scale industries. Puyat Steel is classified large industry while Dragon Phoenix Multi Resources is classified medium. The classification is according to capitalization.

Classification according to Degree of Hazard and Pollution classifies Puyat Steel Cooperation a heavy industry meaning highly pollutive and hazardous industry. Pollution impact of said industry must be actively monitored. All other industries are classified as light to medium industries ranging from non-pollutive/non-hazardous industries to pollutive/hazardous industries. Monitoring of pollution impacts is also necessary.

These industrial establishments occupy a total area of 43.9820 hectares. Industrial establishments are concentrated in the western tip of the municipality coming from Batangas City via the municipality of Ibaan, adjacent and around the Poblacion Barangays. Three establishments are in Barangay Poblacion C. Other barangays with industrial establishment are Barangays Bagong Pook, Masaya, Namuco, San Carlos, San Ignacio and San Roque.

The following shows existing industrial establishment in Rosario for the year 1999.

Existing Industrial Establishments Municipality of Rosario, Batangas: 1999
Industry Type, Name of Establishment, Location and Land Area (in square meters)
Small Scale Industry
  • Tropic Delight Food Industry in Bagong Pook - 546.00 sqm.
  • Vision 2000 Feedmills Corporation in Bagong Pook - 1,080.00 sqm.
  • Blue Diamond Feedmills in Poblacion D - 1,333.00 sqm.
  • Rodsan Oil Manufacturer in Poblacion D - 4,587.00 sqm.
  • TS Marketing in Poblacion D - 239.00 sqm.
  • Galactic Resources Dev't. Corp. in Masaya - 32,323.00 sqm.
  • TS Food Industries in Masaya - 32,500.00 sqm.
  • Bestnet Industries in Namuco - 17,938.00 sqm.
  • PSM Industries in Namuco - 663.18 sqm.
  • Goldstar Feedmills in San Carlos - 24,701.00 sqm.
  • Manalo's Ice Plant in San Roque - 1,419.00 sqm.
Medium Scale Industry
  • Dragon Phoenix Multi-Resources in San Ignacio - 23,910.00 sqm.
Large Scale Industry
  • Puyat Steel Corp. in Masaya - 300,000.00 sqm.
TOTAL - 441,239.18 sqm.
Source: Office of the Municipal Treasurer, Rosario, Batangas

The population is also engaging to cottage industries that make use of agriculture products. Kalamay and panutsa making are cottage industries common in the area. The municipality is also known because of these delicacies. Kalamay is made of sticky rice, coconut milk and sugar. Panutsa on the one hand is made of peanuts and sugar. There are five registered kalamay making cottage industry and seven panutsa making activities.

There is a need for a holistic approach to industrial development that will focus on the agri-industrialization of the municipality and less polluting. The present number and type of industrial activities being still manageable must be continuously monitored for environmental impacts. Use of local materials or inputs must be considered in these establishments. The labor force of the municipality must be priority in terms of employment based on capability and qualification to the job.

For future requirements on industrial expansion areas need to be allocated and identified to meet future requirements. Type and classification of industries based on capitalization, employment and degree of hazard/pollution must be considered. Industries classified as large in terms of capital and employment should be encouraged.

In terms of degree of environmental hazard and pollution only light to medium intensity industries shall be allowed. Considering the area requirement for light to medium industrial establishments, a total 210.904 hectares is required using the standard of 2 hectare per 1,000 population by year 2010.

Nevertheless, leadership must consider going beyond the zonal framework since activities around immediate vicinity of the industrial zone has to complement and support the vision to put a stake in development through hosting light to medium industries.

Requirement for an industrial project to undergo the Environment Impact Assessment Study and to secure Environment Compliance Certificate must always be enforced before construction/operation.

Similarly, farmer-beneficiaries, as well as all landholdings subject for implementation of the programs under the CARP are important factors. That in such case the CARP covered landholdings falls within the boundaries of the proposed industrial site, the said area must be replaced by other available portion of land which is non-irrigated and with lesser productivity.

Thus, the listing of agricultural landholdings in Rosario originating from the DAR will also have to be considered in addition to those properties classified as agricultural lands so as to protect the rights of the farmer beneficiaries, considering further that the same will not unjustly affect the zoning nor the future development and growth of the municipality.

Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines

Economic Sector: Commerce

The information contained in this article were based on the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of Rosario, Batangas for the planning period 2000-2010 and were current in 1999 except in places where updates were duly noted.

THIS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE reports about three major sectors including the Social Sector, the Economic Sector and Infrastructure and Utilities Sector. The Economic Sector consists of the following sub-sectors: agriculture, tourism, commerce and industry. This article covers the Commerce Sub-Sector.

The types of commercial areas, major types of business or trade and other commercial support facilities established in Rosario, Batangas show the level of commercial development in the municipality. These also indicated the feasibility opportunities and incentive in the municipality for further commercial development.

Commercial Areas

Central Business District (CBD)
The concentration of commercial establishments in the municipality is very much evident in the Poblacion barangays. These commercial areas are in Barangay Poblacion B, C, D and E. The largest concentration of commercial establishment or commercial areas is at Poblacion E with the Public Market as the nucleus of the activity.

The commercial area is classified as a Minor Central Business District with the characteristic wet and dry market. It’s a large town in this part of the province, this minor CBD, is a shopping and service area with market as its main feature, complemented by shops, and offices as well recreational and transportation.

Being a catchment area of the surrounding municipalities of Taysan, Ibaan, Padre Garcia and San Juan, this CBD catch not only to the municipality’s own population but those population from other municipalities living adjacent to it. Migrant population drawn to the municipality by employment, recreation and tourism potentials of the municipality are also being served by this CBD.

This Minor Central Business District covers the Public Market within the block bounded by A. Mindanao Street on the north; V. Rodelas St. on the south; Zuno St. on the West and J. Belen St. on the east.

The areas around the Public Market though taking the form of commercial strip also form part of the Minor Central Business District (MCBD). These areas are:
  • Areas within the block bounded on the north by Rodelas St; on the south by Tejada St; on the west by Zuño St. and on the east by a creek.
  • Areas about midblocks.
  • Areas west of Zuño St. extending midblock on areas bounded on the north by L. Esguerra St; on the south by L. Tejada St; on the west by L. Cuartero and A. Arias St. being bisected by E. Carreon, N. Suanes and V. Rodelas St.
  • Area west of Zuño St extending about two (2) lots deep from westwards along Zuño St. bounded on the north by L. Greñas St. and on the south by N. Carreon St.
  • Areas inside blocks bounded on the north by I. Farol St; on the south by H. Mindanao St; on the west by Zuño St. and on the east by J. Belen St. It is also being bisected two unnamed streets (alley).
  • Areas east of J. Belen St. bounded on the north by H. Mindanao St; on the south by V. Rodelas St; on the west by J. Belen St. and on the east by Y. Zuño St. and a creek.
  • Portion of areas within the block bounded on the north by L. Greñas St; on the south by H. Mindanao St; on the west by J. Belen St. and on the east by Y. Zuño St. This is the portion proximate or nearer the public market.

Except for the public market, these areas within the MCBD are noticeably quasi residential-commercial or mixed use development in strip fashion around the public market. Type of commercial activities are generally of retail trade, services and light industrial activities such as welding shops and rice mills. There are also jeepney and tricycle terminals within the MCBD, which cater to the public going to other barangays of the municipality as well as to those of adjacent municipalities.

Commercial Strip
Commercial strips along major roads traversing the municipality are burgeoning about the blocks away from the MCBD. These can be considered extension of the MCBD since it is still within the influence areas of the market and still urban. These developments are prevalent along the provincial road leading to Cayetano St. (national road going to Lipa City) and the Gualberto Avenue (national road going to San Juan). These areas are within the jurisdiction of Poblacion barangay B, C, D and E. Specifically these areas are:

Poblacion B
  • Areas about two lots deep north of Gualberto St. (national road to San Juan) within the block bounded by V. Escano on the north; Gualberto St. on the south; Zuño St. on the west and J. Belen on the east.
  • Areas about one lot deep, south of Gualberto St. bounded on the west by J. Belen St. and on the east by Y. Zuño St. These areas are across the street from the town hall.
  • Areas about one lot deep north of Gualberto St. adjacent to the Catholic Church on the block bounded by V. Escano St. on the north; Gualberto St. on the South; J. Belen St. on the west and Y. Zuño.
Commercial activities in the strip include financial institutions like banks, pawnshop and lending investors; services like photo studio, video rentals, computer service trading and food chain. Retail establishments include general merchandise and mini-mart.

Poblacion C
Areas of about two (2) lots deep on both side of Carandang St. (national/provincial road to Lipa City, starting from the junction of Gualberto Ave and Carandang St. extending up north about 1,300 meters. These include areas adjacent to the municipal park within the block bounded on the north by V. Escano St; on the south by Gualberto Ave; on the west by Carandang St. and on the east by Zuño St.

It is the northern half of a very busy and congested intersection, which lead to Lipa City on the north and Batangas City on the west. It is a mixed commercial-light industrial area with financing institutions, service shops and services, retail stores, funeral parlor and rice mill. A manufacturing business is also in the strip. As it is in the intersection, jeepney terminals to Lipa and Batangas City and Lucena City are also present in this strip.

Poblacion D
  • Areas south of Gualberto St. including blocks bounded by Gualberto Ave. on the north; Magtibay St. on the south ; Carandang St. on the West and J. Belen St. on the east. This is being bisected by Zuño St. These include residential area in the block.
  • Areas about one lot deep west of Carandang St. bounded on the north by Gualberto Ave. and extending 1,700 meters southward west of Carandang St. These areas form the southern part of the intersection between the national/provincial roads to Batangas City and Lipa City.
  • Areas east of Carandang St. extending about one lot deep eastwards and bounded on the north by Magtibay St. and on the south by Greñas St.
  • Areas extending about ____ meters southwards from Gualberto Ave.( national road to Batangas City) and ___ meter eastward from the barangay boundaries between Poblacion D and Barangay Namunga.
Type of Commercial activities are also of mixed types just like in Poblacion C.

Poblacion E
Areas of about one lot deep east of the provincial road from Namuco extending northwards about __ meters bounded on the east by L. Cuartero and A. Arias Streets.

Together with all other commercial establishment scattered and dispersed single structure, these areas constitute the commercial areas of the municipality in the Poblacion Barangays. This covers a total area of 12.163 hectare.

The following shows type of commercial area and commercial establishment therein.

Existing Commercial Establishments, 1999
Type, Location and Number of Commercial Establishments

Minor Central Business District in Poblacion E
Auto Supply - 2
Bakery - 1
Battery Supply - 1
Boutique - 1
Bread Shop - 4
Candy Store - 1
Canteen - 29
Construction Supply - 1
Dried Fish - 8
Drug Store - 6
Dry Goods - 29
Feeds Supply - 14
Footwear - 2
Fruit Stall - 9
Furniture Stall - 1
Gen. Merchandise - 2
Glassware - 12
Grocery - 103
Hardware - 2
Jewelry Shop - 5
Lomi House - 2
Marketing - 1
Meat Vendor - 18
Parlor - 4
Plastic ware - 1
Rice Vendor - 30
Salt Store - 2
Sari-Sari Store - 1
Sedera - 1
Textile - 18
Variety - 1
Vegetable Stall - 27
Veterinary Supply - 2
Warehouses - 7

Commercial Strip in Poblacion B
Baker - 2
Bank - 3
Communication Service Center - 1
Computer Service Center - 1
Food Chain - 1
General Merchandise - 1
Lending Investor - 3
Minimart - 1
Pawnshop - 2
Photo Studio - 3
Trading Business - 1
Video Rental Shop - 1

Commercial Strip in Poblacion C
Bakery - 1
Banks - 3
Barber Shop - 1
Communication Service Center - 1
Construction Supply - 3
Food Stand - 3
Funeral Parlor - 1
General Merchandise - 2
Glass Supply - 1
Lending Investor - 1
Manufacturer - 1
Motor Repair - 1
Pawnshop - 2
Pharmacy - 2
Printing Service - 1
Restaurant - 2
Rice Mill - 2
Rice Retailer - 2
Spare Parts Center - 3
Tailoring Shop - 1
Theater - 1
Trading Business - 1
Upholstery - 1
Welding Shop - 2

Commercial Strip in Poblacion D
Appliance Center - 1
Bakery - 3
Bank - 3
Barber Shop - 2
Beauty Parlor - 2
Computer Service - 1
Construction Supply - 2
Food Stand - 3
Funeral Parlor - 2
General Merchandise - 6
Law Office - 1
Lending Investor - 3
Manufacturer - 1
Minimart - 1
Newspaper Publishing - 1
Pharmacy - 4
Photo Studio - 1
Restaurant - 3
Trading Business - 1
Travel Agency - 1
Video Tape Rental - 1
Welding Shop - 1

Commercial Strip in Poblacion E
Appliance Center - 1
Bakery - 1
Banks - 4
Construction Supply - 5
Garment Store - 1
Gasoline Station - 1
General Merchandise - 3
Glass Supply - 1
Junk Shop - 2
Lending Investor - 4
Marble Supply - 1
Minimart - 2
Pawnshop - 2
Pharmacy - 1
Restaurant - 2
Rice Mill - 2
Rice Retailer - 2
Trading Business
Veterinary Supply - 1
Video Rental Shop - 1
Welding Shop - 6

Types of Commercial Establishments
The four major types of commercial establishments by nature of their business or trade are those establishments engage in banking and finance, wholesale trade, retail trade and services.

Retail Trade
Of the present number of 495 establishments retail trade is the most common type of business. This type constitutes about 70 percent of the total commercial establishments. This type pertains to resale (without transformation of new and used goods to the general public. These includes sari-sari store, specialized Item store, agricultural product retailer, dry good store veterinary supply, spare parts supply and the like. This included almost all stalls in the public market.

Services type establishment ranks second with a total of 104 in 1999. This is about 21% of the total commercial establishments.

Business Services
There are establishment that cater to the care and needs of other business, provide entertainment and personal concerns. Thus service establishment are further classified into business services that cater to legal, accounting, auditing, bookkeeping, technical and clerical consultancy and service.

Recreational Services
Recreational service consist of theater, radio stations, bowling alleys, billiard hall, swimming pools, gymnasium, golf club, cockpits, amusement machine and the like.

Personal Services
Personal Service cater to care of person like in terms of food, clothing and shelter as in restaurants, tailoring shops beauty parlor, lodging houses, laundry service funeral service, janitorial, massage clinics and the like. Among these service establishments, personal services are most common in the municipality.

Wholesale Trade
Wholesale trade is the least type of commercial establishment in the municipality. There are only 16 of these establishments which is only about 3% of the total. These consist of feed supply wholesalers and rice wholesalers. Junk shops are also included therein. Wholesale trade in the municipality dovetailed with the agricultural activities in the area.

Banking and Financing
Banking and finance type comprising of banks, lending investors, pawnshops and money changers total to 30 establishments. These constitute 6% of the total. The presence of these institutions indicates potentials for business ventures and financing in the municipality. Loans and credit may be availed of from these institutions to start of business.

The following table shows commercial establishments by type of business or trade conducted.

Commercial Establishments By Type of Business or Trade
Type of Business or Trade and Number of Commercial Establishments

Banking and Finance - 32
Wholesale Trade - 14
Retail Trade - 184
Services - 82
Total - 312

Banking and Finance - 29
Wholesale Trade - 17
Retail Trade - 131
Services - 66
Total - 243

Banking and Finance - 30
Wholesale Trade - 16
Retail Trade - 345
Services - 104
Total - 495

Sources: Office of the Municipal Treasurer, Rosario, Batangas and Office of Municipal Mayor, Rosario, Batangas

Growth Of Commercial Establishments
Considering, the above table, there has been a fluctuating number of commercial establishments being reported per year from 1997 to year 1999. The figure shows a decline of 22% from 1997 to 1998 and an increase of about 104% from 1998 to 1999. It was however, a remarkable increase from 1998 to 1999.

Retail trade and service are always the most common type of commercial establishments within the three-year period. The decline in 1998 may be attributed to a region wide economic crisis then. With the showing in 1999, it showed resurgence in commercial activities again. This increasing trend in commercial establishments has to be maintained and sustained within the planning period.

Current commercial activities in terms of commercial areas specifically, the existing MCBD must be compact and concentrated, that residential use will be phased-out such that the contiguous areas will all be for commercial use.

Provision of walkways inside the market for pedestrian traffic is necessary for accessibility of commercial establishment and mobility of shoppers. Flow of vehicular traffic on roads abutting the MCBD must be systematized to facilitate travel of shoppers and store owners. Likewise, setbacks, parking space and pedestrian lanes should be provided in commercial strip.

Commercial establishments in these areas need spaces for shoppers and the natural flow must not be obstructed. Setbacks from roads of any commercial establishment in commercial strips must be enforces in the permit system and complied with by entrepreneurs. These commercial strips also aggravate vehicular traffic. Areas should be provided for parking spaces to keep customers outside of the carriageway of roads abutting the establishment.

Expansion of commercial areas in the Poblacion barangays as well as the nodal barangay within its cluster of barangays is a need within the planning period. The growing population increasing economic activities and proposed developments will warrant a corresponding spatial requirement. Additional areas need to be allocated for commercial purposes within the planning period.

In terms of types of commercial establishment prospects for service specifically for business and recreational nature should be looked into. Again increased economic activity in terms of agriculture and industry will need corresponding technical, clerical, legal and documentation consultancy and assistance services to facilitate things.

Likewise, for recreational activities, entrepreneurs and traders may well consider this establishment in support of existing high-end recreational activities that may induce local economy.

Improving and sustaining the growth of commercial establishments as indicated from 1998-1999 must be a prime concern in the sector. The continuous increasing trend must be posted even beyond the planning period. The presence of banking and financing institution will help a lot in these undertaking. Their presence provides some possible financing schemes that investors and entrepreneurs can availed of. Maintaining these establishments in the municipality must always be considered.

Commercial activities in the barangays outside of the Poblacion must also be given impetus. The feasibility of commercial activities per cluster and the allocation of commercial areas in a nodal growth barangay in such a cluster of barangays are necessary. The commercial area must be accessible to all barangays under the cluster. Exchange of good and services then on a cluster level will complement commercial activities in the urban core.

Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines