THIS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE reports about three major sectors including the Social Sector, the Economic Sector and Infrastructure and Utilities Sector. The Social Sector consists of the following sub-sectors: housing, health, education, protective services, social welfare services, and sports and recreation. This article covers the Health Sub-Sector.
General Health Indicators
Health and sanitation situation of the municipality is generally acceptable and fit for human habitation. The fertility indices show a fairly productive population. The crude birth rate is 33 livebirths per 1,000 population and the total fertility rate is 129 livebirths per 1,000 female population in child bearing ages 15-44 years.
Morbidity indicator as shown in the general medical consultation rate (GMCR) of 478 is not alarming and well within tolerable limits. Hospitalization rate is 102 hospitalized per 1,000 population.
Mortality indicators are also considerably low:
- Crude Death Rate (CDR) is 5 persons per 1,000 population.
- Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) or deaths among newborn babies are 20 per 1,000 livebirths.
- Young Child Mortality (YCM) or the number death among 1-4 years old population is 1 per 1,000 population.
- Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) or death among mothers due to childbirth is almost negligible, with just one instance recorded in 1999.
The most common cause of mortality is coronary obstructive pulmonary diseases, which are about 8.76% of the total causes of mortality. This can be attributed partly on unhealthy smoking habits of people.
Since there is no significant source of industrial pollution in the municipality, it is suspected that other factors such as improper management of the disease may have contributed to this.
Other leading causes of mortality for the last five (5) years between 1995-1999 are: cardio-vascular disease, cardio-vascular accident, pneumonia, cancer, artery disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, accidents, prematurity, MI, stillbirths , coronary heart failure, diabetes mellitus, abdominal organ malfunction, sepsis and uremia.
Morbidity or causes of sickness are as follows: respiratory tract infection, hypertension, pneumonia, diarrhea, anemia, urinary tract infection and pulmonary tuberculosis, among others.
The most common is respiratory tract infection, which is almost 60% of the total. Sudden change in weather and temperature attributed to this cause. In addition, older members of the household may have inadvertently transferred the infection to other members of the family.
The following list shows the leading causes of morbidity, number of cases and % morbidity in 1999:
- Respiratory tract infection 2,744 57.6%
- Hypertension 433 9.1%
- Pneumonia 396 8.3%
- Diarrhea 372 7.8%
- Anemia 334 7.0%
- Urinary tract infection 185 3.9%
- Pulmonary tuberculosis 99 2.1%
- Tonsillitis 68 1.4%
- Influenza 56 1.2%
- Primary complex 46 1.0%
- Mumps 15 0.3%
- Chicken pox 5 0.1%
- Measles 5 0.1%
- Bronchitis 5 0.1%
- All Causes 4,763 100.0%
Epidemic Occurrence for the Last Five (5) Years
There has been no notable epidemic occurrence for the last five years. Dengue fever had occurred sometime in 1996. The magnitude, however, can hardly be described as epidemic. Several measures, including fogging selected areas and conduct of community education have been immediately put in place that prevented the widespread coverage of the said fever.
Rate of Malnutrition
There are total of 3,931 malnourished children among population ages 0-6 years old. Of these number 3,078 children or 19.5 are afflicted with first degree malnutrition; 749 children or 4.7% are within the second degree of malnutrition; and 104 children or 0.7% are within the third degree.
Barangays Alupay (648) ang Bagong Pook (751) registered the most number of malnourished children aged 0-6 years old; while Barangay Poblacion A (179) has the least number.
Malnutrition in the municipality maybe attributed to the parents’ lack of proper knowledge on the selection of nutritious foods. Failure to engage in backyard food production such as planting of vegetables by families also contributed to incidence of malnutrition. Low income or inadequate financial resources was also cited as an aggravating factor in this problem.
But efforts to significantly reduce the rate of malnutrition are in place. The Nutrition Program under the Municipal Nutrition Committee and supervised by the Municipal Nutrition Action Officer aims to improve the nutritional status of women and children especially the high risk and vulnerable such as preschool children, pregnant and lactating women, through a package of nutrition services that includes risk screening and food and micro-nutrient (iron, Vitamin A and iodine) supplementation, among others.
Health Resources, Facilities and Services
Health services in the municipality are ably and amply provided by 4 hospitals (3 private and 1 government); 5 medical clinics, 1 maternity clinic, 12 dental clinics and 12 pharmacies, which are registered and licensed. They render services not only to the municipality but also to the nearby municipalities and even as far as Quezon.
Thus, Rosario plays a role of medical services provider in this part of the province and the region.
The four hospitals are categorized as Secondary Care District Hospital. They have a total bed capacity of 113 beds. The services rendered in each hospital are presented in the following listing:
Medical Health Facilities and Services Rendered
- Mahal Na Virgen Maria Sto. Rosario District Hospital: Medical, OB-Gyne, surgical, pediatrics, laboratory, physical therapy
- Vilela's General Hospital: Medical, OB-Gyne, surgical, pediatrics, laboratory
- Palma-Malaluan Hospital: Medical, OB-Gyne, surgical, dermatology, orthopedic, ultra sound, X-ray, pediatrics, laboratory, EENT, opthalmologic, urologic, physical therapy
- Sto. Rosario Hospital: Medical, OB-Gyne, surgical, dermatology, orthopedic, ultra sound, X-ray, pediatrics, laboratory
The municipality has two Rural Health Units serving all its 48 barangays. The Office for Health Services-Rural Health Unit I (OHS-RHU I) is located in the Poblacion with a catchment of 25 barangays. Office for Health Services-Rural Health Unit II (OHS-RHU II) is at Barangay Alupay, with a catchment of 23 barangays. Both rural health units have their own respective ambulances and designated ambulance driver.
The total health manpower providing medical and health services to the population of the municipality and its influence areas are 20 doctors, 27 nurses, 33 midwives, 21 dentists, 4 rural sanitary inspectors, 9 medical technologists, 5 X-ray technicians, 4 health aide, 3 nursing aides and 1 dietician. These are the combined manpower of the health facilities stated above.
With a current total population of 82,115, the medical personnel to population ratios are as follows:
- Doctors: Public, 1:41,057; Private, 1:4,562; Total, 1:4,106;
- Nurses: Public, 1:16,423; Private, 1:3,732; Total, 1:3,041;
- Midwives: Public, 1: 4,106; Private, 1:6,316; Total, 1:2,488;
- Dentists: Public, 1:10,264; Private, 1:5,865; Total, 1:3,910.
The current ratios except for the government physicians are well within the standard of 1 doctor, 1 nurse and 1 Rural Sanitary Inspector for every 20,000 population. For midwives the standard is 1 for every 5,000 population.
Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste Disposal
The usual manner of waste disposal Poblacion and 9 adjacent barangays is through the local service garbage trucks that pick up the garbage daily from the residents using 3 dump trucks. The garbage is then disposed of at the municipal dumpsite located at Barangay Maalas-as, about 4 kilometers from the Poblacion. The dumpsite covers an area of 3.509 hectares. Other residents resort to burning and burying as means of garbage disposal.
Industrial firms operating in the municipality have specific manner of waste disposal depending on the nature of their wastes generated. But basically, it is the industrial facility itself that handles the storage and disposition of the waste it generates.
Hazardous wastes (chemical, biological, and radioactive substances) were disposed of presumably in accordance with applicable laws, guidelines, rules and regulations of the DENR, DOH and other appropriate agencies of the government.
Waste water generated by Puyat Steel Corporation, for example, will have several treatments consisting of the following: flow equalization, pH adjustment, primary sedimentation, reduction, precipitation, and secondary sedimentation and mixed media filtration. It also has air pollution control measures installed.
Sanitary Toilet Facilities
The proportion of households with access to toilet facilities is an indicator of the health and sanitation status of the households. This was already discussed in another article on the housing sub-sector.
In summary, however, based on the data gathered from the Rural Health Units and from the Office for Sustainable Development-MASID Project, there are still 22.1% of households who do not have sanitary means of waste disposal. Most household, however, have water-sealed toilet facilities, closed-pit type and open pit-type toilet facilities.
Based on the survey conducted for this purpose, it was found that all hospitals in the municipality have their garbage picked up by local service garbage trucks as their usual manner of waste disposal. Some hospitals also practice burning as their alternative method of waste disposal. At least one turns over its used syringes to the Provincial Health Office for proper disposal.
Cemeteries and Burial Grounds
There are four cemeteries in Rosario. Two of them are government owned. The one located at Barangay Poblacion D has an area of 5,600 square meters while the one located at Barangay Alupay has a total land area of 9,800 square meters. The other two privately owned cemeteries, which were both located beside the municipal cemetery in Barangay Poblacion D, have a total land area of 2.35 hectares.
Continuous maintenance and preservation of the health and safety of the population must always be the concern of the health services sector. Keeping the health indicators always at tolerable and acceptable level is a must.
In terms of personnel, the OHS-RHUs should still add three more doctors by 2010 so that the government would be able to serve the total population of 105,199. There is also a need for 1 more sanitary inspector by the year 2004 to 2010.
Services and Facilities Requirement
The present number of health services facilities such as hospitals, clinics and laboratories are very much essential to the availability and accessibility of health and medical services to the population. The presence of two OHS-RHUs show the commitment of the local government to bring health services to the greater number of population.
Likewise, private participation of practitioners in the provision of health services to the people augments and supplements the government efforts. This partnership must always be maintained.
Programs on health services and development being implemented by the RHUs must be maintained and further improved for the benefit of the population. This will redound to healthy and responsive citizenry.
Particularly, increasing Rural Health activities focusing on proper management of diseases most importantly those leading causes of mortality, with the end in view of including all the population will thus be pursued.
Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste Disposal
In terms of waste disposal, the current land area of the dump site that is 3.509 hectares is sufficient until the end of the planning period. The standard area requirement for a dump site or a sanitary landfill is 1 hectare per 30,000 population. With a population of 105,199 by year 2010 the requirement will be about 3.506 hectares.
Current usage, however, showed that the present site could not anymore hold the current garbage load. Proper use and maintenance of the dump site is recommended. Proper dumping methods and maintenance scheme must be employed to the efficient and effective use of the dump site.
In the maintenance and expansion of dump sites, specific reference to Ecological Management Act mandating the upgrade of existing open dump sites to controlled dump sites or sanitary landfills respectively, should be considered accordingly.
Similarly, the population or the households must do proper waste management and disposal system themselves. Waste segregation, recycling, composting and zero waste management must be disseminated to the households. Proper waste management must start at home.
In this connection and pursuant to Section 11 and 12 of RA 2003, or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, formation of a Municipal Solid Waste Management Board should be considered to prepare and implement any plan for the safe and sanitary management of solid waste.
Hospital waste must have other means of disposal than the dump site. Hospital wastes particularly sharps (e.g. needles, scalpels etc.) and infectious wastes should be adequately treated prior to disposal and should not be considered as ordinary wastes for disposal to dump sites even if the dump site will be solely used for that purpose.
Industrial waste management must be monitored. Provision of anti-pollution devices and treatment ponds or septic tanks of the industrial establishments in the municipality must be checked. Pollution from these wastes must be avoided.
Types of waste including toxic and hazardous wastes originating from industrial activities should be properly classified, and competency building to implement any monitoring activity to that effect should be established. Regular monitoring of waste management practices of industries should be conducted in coordination with local and national agencies (Environment Management Bureau of the DENR).
Sanitary Toilet Facilities
Assistance in the provision of sanitary toilet facilities for the remaining households without access to sanitary toilets must continue. Cleanliness and beautification projects must still be in place for the promotion of health and sanitation of the population and the environment.
Furthermore, as comfort rooms represent a major factor in maintaining sanitation and hygiene in schools, construction/repair of school comfort rooms/toilets in all schools of the municipality should be considered.
Cemeteries and Burial Grounds
Cemeteries and memorial parks must also conform to all the health and sanitation requirements being implemented by the Department of Health, planning guidelines and permits by the Local Government Unit and HLURB, Water Code of the Philippines and Sanitation Code.
As cemeteries and burial grounds would require site development, environmental impacts would have to be taken into account. Thus national policies in particular DENR Administrative Order 96-37 (Environmental Impact Statement System) should also be considered.
Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines