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Municipality of Rosario Batangas

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Rosario Batangas Philippines

Saturday, November 12, 2011

Physical and Natural Characteristics

The information contained in this article were based on the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of Rosario, Batangas for the planning period 2000-2010 and were current in 1999 except in places where updates were duly noted.

Geographic Location
The municipality of Rosario lies at the intersection of lies at the intersection of 13º 50' 43.90" North latitude and 121º 12' 22.75" East longitude. It is located at the south eastern portion of Batangas Province along with the south eastern boundaries of the province with Quezon Province. It is bounded on the north by Padre Garcia and Lipa City; on the south by the municipalities of Taysan and Lobo; east by the municipality of San Juan and Quezon Province and on the west by the municipality of Ibaan. The municipality belongs to the Fourth Congressional District of Batangas Province.

Rosario is approximately 93 kilometers from Metro Manila, the country’s premier region and 23 kilometers from Batangas City which is the provincial capital. It is also 13 kilometers from Lipa City, the congressional district’s major urban center. It is accessible by land transportation from all directions (north, south, east, and west) within and outside of the municipality.

Approaches to the municipality from Metro Manila are on the eastern direction via Candelaria, Quezon and on the north western direction via Lipa City.

From the east:
The eastern route is along the Maharlika Highway or Philippine-Japan Friendship Highway from Sto. Tomas, Batangas to Candelaria, Quezon where one takes a right turn to the Batangas-Quezon National Highway via San Juan, Batangas running directly right across the Poblacion barangays of the municipality. It is about 37 kilometers from the Candelaria junction of Maharlika and Batangas-Quezon national highways right to the town hall of Rosario. Barangay Putingkahoy is the first barangay or the entry point to be traversed by the Batangas–Quezon National Highway along this eastern route. Batangas-Quezon National Highway runs on an east-west direction on the upper northern portion of the municipality right across the central business district. A portion of the highway within the Poblacion is also known as Dr. Gualberto Avenue.

From the north:
The northwestern route is either via the Southern Tagalog Access Road (STAR) or the Manila – Batangas National Highway also from Sto. Tomas down to Lipa City where one takes a left turn towards the central business district of the City and again turns left at P. Torres St. leading to Lipa City-Taysan provincial road. The entry point is Barangay Quilib on the northwestern tip right after Padre Garcia, Batangas. The said provincial road crosses Gualberto St. to the Batangas-Quezon highway in the Poblacion area. Jeepneys and bus terminals are present in this junction of the Batangas-Quezon highway and the Lipa City-Taysan provincial road.

From the west:
From Batangas City, the municipality is accessible via the Batangas-Quezon National Highway passing through Ibaan municipality with Barangay San Ignacio as entrypoint.

From the south:
Rosario can also be accessed through rough and mountainous roads from Batangas City via Lobo and Taysan municipalities through barangay Maalas-as on the southwestern boundaries. Barangay Bulihan is also an entrypoint on this side of the municipality.

There are other entry points to the municipality. Likewise, jeepneys and buses ferry passengers to and from the municipality. Internally, a network of provincial, municipal and barangay roads provide accessibility and mobility.

Batangas Bay Region
Rosario is also considered as among the municipalities of Batangas Bay Region, which comprises four coastal municipalities, one island municipality and nine interior municipalities whose catchment areas drain into the Batangas Bay. It is one of the nine interior municipalities.

Land Area
The municipality has a total land area of 27,923.67 hectares. These are jurisdictionally divided into forty-eight (48) barangays. These barangays are conveniently grouped into eight (8) clusters to enhance coordination of local government initiatives.

Barangays Poblacion A,B,C,D and E are the urban barangays of the municipality. These barangays have a total area of 93.132 hectares. These barangays presently constitute the Central Business District of the municipality.

The remaining forty-three (43) barangays occupy the remaining area of 27,830.5380 hectares. These are areas currently referred to as rural barangays.

The climate of Rosario is characterized by two seasons – the wet (or rainy) and dry. The rainy season lasts for about six months from May to October, when the southwest monsoon prevails. Most often, however, rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. Dry season is enjoyed from November to April. The climate in the area is favorable for vegetable growth. Like the rest of southern Luzon, it is frequently visited by typhoons.

The southeast monsoon prevails from January to April, while the southwest monsoon prevails from late May or early June up to late October or early November. The moist unstable air coming from the southwest that is associated with the southwest monsoon brings rain with it.

The municipality of Rosario is generally level, with gently sloping to undulating topography. It is located in a terrain with elevation ranging from 100 to 200 meters mean sea level in the study area.

The geology of Rosario is predominantly Tertiary to Quaternary and essentially of igneous rocks. These rocks are widespread in the municipality, formed during the Pleistocene period. A large part of the municipality is overlain with volcanic ejecta, also known as Taal Tuff derived from previous eruptions of Taal Volcano, which is now a caldera. The eastern, central and western parts of Rosario are overlain mostly by the Taal Tuff, whereas the southeastern areas are partly San Juan Diorite. (Source: Coastal Environmental Profile of the Batangas Bay Region, GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pollution in East Asian Seas, 1996.)

Soil Fertility
Rosario has two types of soil. The Calumpang Clay Loam soil type represents 62.3% of the total land area while the Ibaan Clay Loam soil type covers the remaining 37.7% of t he municipality. These kinds of soil are best suited to plants and crops like coconut, rice, fruit trees, banana, corn, mongo, citrus, bamboo, grasses and shrubs.

Distribution of Area (in percent of total area) by Major Landform Type
Broad Alluvial Plains (GMU 06) - 0.22%
Terrace or residual slopes) (GMU 21) - 44.45%
River, Stream & Lake Escarpment (GMU 25) - 5.01%
Footslope or Piedmont (GMU 26) - 32.37%
Volcanic Hills (GMU 51) - 17.96%

Distribution of Area (in percent of total area) by Land Capability Class
Class B: Good land, can be cultivated safely; requires easily applied conservation practices.
Subclass Be: Nearly level to gently sloping, slightly to moderately eroded. Main problem is erosion. Observe erosion control measures and easily applied conservation practices.
This Land Capability Class comprises 68.10% of total land area.

Class D: Fairly good land. Must be cultivated with exra caution. Requires very careful management and complex conservation practices for safe cultivation. Best suited to pasture or forest.
Subclass De: Strongly sloping, severely to eroded. Main problems: Erosion and fertility. Observe erosion control measures, very careful soil management, especially good crop rotation and complex conservation practices if land is tobe cultivated. Suited for pasture.
This Land Capability Class comprises 31.91% of total land area.

Land Use Suitability Class and by GMU (Geographic Management Unit)/LMU (Land Management Unit)
GMU 06: Broad alluvial plains
LMU 09: Broad plains
Highly Suitable (S1) for Paddy rice (irrigated), paddy rice (non-irrigated), upland rice, corn, mongo, peanut, eggplant, tomato, string beans, ampalaya,cabbage, pechay,cassava, citrus, pineapple, cashew, abaca, cotton, ramie, sugarcane, coconut, and pasture
Moderately Suitable (S2) for Squash, maguey, and coconut
Marginally Suitable (S3) for Citronella

GMU 21: Terrace (residual slopes)
LMU 21: Level to gently sloping terraces
Highly Suitable (S1) for Paddy rice (irrigated), paddy rice (non-irrigated), upland rice, corn, mongo, peanut, eggplant, tomato, string beans, chayote, cabbage, pechay, ampalaya, squash, cassava, sweet potato, Irish potato, ube, ginger, onion, black pepper, watermelon, coffee, cacao
Moderately Suitable (S2) Ramie and tobacco
Marginally Suitable (S3) for Cotton

LMU 22: Sloping to undulating terraces
Highly Suitable (S1) for Upland rice, cassava, sweet potato, Irish potato, ube, ginger, onion, black pepper, watermelon, coffee, cacao, citrus, pineapple, cashew, maguey, abaca, sugarcane, coconut, citronella, and pasture
Moderately Suitable (S2) for Paddy rice (irrigated), paddy rice (non irrigated), corn, mongo, peanut, eggplant, tomato, string beans, ampalaya, squash, chayote, cabbage, pechay and cassava
Marginally Suitable (S3) for Cotton

GMU 25: Escarpments
LMU 25: Stream, river, and lake escarpments

GMU 51: Volcanic hills
LMU 56: Andestic hills - high relief
Moderately Suitable (S2) for Coffee, maguey, pasture

LMU 58: Volcanic complex - hills high relief
Moderately Suitable (S2) for Coffee, maguey, pasture

LMU 62: Volcanic agglomerate – hills high relief
Marginally Suitable (S3) for Maguey, pasture, coffee

Slope Profile and Stability
Slopes below 18 percent comprising more than 70 percent of its total land area typify the slope profile of central to eastern up to northeastern barangay clusters of the municipality. The slopes of the remaining barangays in the eastern to southeastern barangay clusters are rolling to rough, with slopes of more than 18 percent and above.

Slope and Location
Slope 0-3%: Salao, Macalamcam A and B, Pinagsibaan, Puting Kahoy, Balibago, Alupay and portion of Mabato
Slope 3-8%: Marilag, San Ignacio, Colongan, Namunga, Masaya, Poblacion, Timbugan, Namuco, Itlugan, Bagong Pook, San Jose, Maalas-as, Mavalor, San Carlos, Tiquiwan, Natu, Baybayin, Cahigam, Lumbangan, Maligaya, Bayawang and portions of Mabato and San Isidro
Slope 8-15%: Malaya, Sta. Cruz, Quilib and San Roque
Slope 15% and above: Antipolo, Calantas, Leviste, Matamis, Palakpak, Tulos, Mabunga, Nazi, Mayuro and portions of San Isidro

The elevated portions are eastern barangays Mabunga, Mayuro, Nasi with portion of San Isidro; and southeastern barangays Antipolo, Calantas, Leviste, Matamis, Palakpak and Tulos.

Slope acts as one of the indicators of soil erosion and sedimentation. Combined with vegetation cover and land use, slope gives an indication of the susceptibility of an area to soil erosion during heavy rainfall. It is also a major consideration in the selection of sites for urban and industrial development.

Distribution of Area (in percent) by Slope Class
Slope Class 0-3% - Level to gently sloping: 39.1%
Slope Class 3-8% - Gently sloping to undulating: 19.8%
Slope Class 8-18% - Undulating to rolling: 13.3%
Slope Class 18-30% - Rolling to hilly: 11.6%
Slope Class 30-50% - Hilly to steeply hilly: 6.3%
Slope Class Over 50% - Steeply hilly to mountainous: 9.9%

Soil Erosion
About 75 percent of the municipality experience none to slight erosion. Of its total area, only 25 percent have moderate erosion and no area suffers from severe erosion. The following shows the erosion profile of the municipality:

Distribution of Area (in percent of total area) by Erosion Class
None - 50.6%
Slight - 24.5%
Moderate - 24.9%
Severe - 0%

Rosario has a moderate to good and excessive drainage. Excess surface run-off drained on the tributaries of Kalumpang River on the west that ultimately releases its load on Batangas Bay while the eastern portion drains on the tributaries of Malaking Ilog and Lawaye Rivers that exits in Tayabas Bay. On the other hand, internal drainage was moderate to poor due to the composition of the soil.

  • Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines
  • Coastal Environmental Profile of the Batangas Bay Region, GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pollution in East Asian Seas, 1996.

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