THIS SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE reports about three major sectors including the Social Sector, the Economic Sector and Infrastructure and Utilities Sector. The Economic Sector consists of the following sub-sectors: agriculture, tourism, commerce and industry. This article covers the Agriculture Sub-Sector.
AGRICULTURE, one of the economic backbones of the municipality, consists of activities such as agricultural crop production and livestock and poultry raising.
Agricultural Crop Production
Rosario is primarily an agricultural town with 12,163.45 hectares or 43.56% of the total land area planted to annual and perennial crops. These include rice, corn, coconut, mango, banana and other fruits and vegetables.
Rice, the major agricultural crop, occupies an area of 4,324.55 hectares, about 35.56% of total agricultural area, of which 1,033.15 hectares or 23.89% are irrigated, 2,675.90 hectares or 61.88% are rain-fed and 615.50 hectares or 14.23% are upland rice area. The remaining agricultural areas are planted to either fruits or vegetables. The following shows the area devoted to agricultural crop production.
Agricultural Area Devoted to Crop Production: 1999
Crops and Area (in hectares)
- Rice, total - 4,324.55 has.
- Irrigated rice - 1,033.15 has.
- Rain-fed rice - 2,675.90 has.
- Upland rice - 615.50 has.
- Corn - 336.45 has.
- Coconut - 1,331.37 has.
- Mango - 1,262.24 has.
- Banana - 957.05 has.
- Other Fruits - 2,166.36 has.
- Vegetables - 1,785.43 has.
- Total - 12,163.45 has.
- Rice, total - 35.56%
- Irrigated rice - 8.50%
- Rain-fed rice - 22.00%
- Upland rice - 5.06%
- Corn - 2.77%
- Coconut - 10.94%
- Mango - 10.38%
- Banana - 7.87%
- Other Fruits - 17.81%
- Vegetables - 14.67%
- Total - 100.00%
- Rice, total - 15.48%
- Irrigated rice - 3.70%
- Rain-fed rice - 9.58%
- Upland rice - 2.20%
- Corn - 1.20%
- Coconut - 4.77%
- Mango - 4.52%
- Banana - 3.43%
- Other Fruits - 7.76%
- Vegetables - 6.40%
- Total - 43.56%
Rice production has an average yield of 4,500 kg/hectare or 90 cavans/hectare on irrigated areas, 2,833 kg/hectare or 56.66 cavans/hectare on rain-fed areas and 1,542 kg/hectare or 30.84 cavans/hectare on upland areas.
Irrigated lands have two cropping seasons while the rain-fed and upland areas harvest only once a year. The total annual rice production is 17,828,275.50 kilograms or 356,565.51 cavans amounting to PHP3,800,988.30 at the average prevailing price of PHP533.00 per cavan or PHP10.66 per kilo at 14 percent moisture content.
Corn production has an average yield of 140 cavans per hectare with 2 cropping per year. Mangoes and other fruits are also produced in considerable quantities in the municipality. The following shows agricultural area and production by crop.
Agricultural Area and Production by Crop, 1999
Crops, Area and Production
- Irrigated rice - 1,033.15 has., 4,500 kg/ha
- Rain-fed rice - 2,675.90 has., 2,833 kg/ha
- Upland rice - 615.50 has., 1,542 kg/ha
- Corn - 336.45 has., 7,000
- Coconut - 1,331.37 has., 3,000 kg/ha
- Mango - 1,262.24 has., 249,984 kg/ha
- Banana - 957.05 has., 40,816 kg/ha
- Other Fruits - 2,166.36 has., 458,618 kg/ha
- Vegetables - 1,785.43 has., 138,220 kg/ha
- Total - 12,163.45 has.
Livestock and Poultry
Livestock and poultry raising is a common thrust in agricultural municipalities like Rosario. For the year 1999, the Office for Agricultural Services reported a total livestock and poultry population 110,507 heads and 105,000 fowls respectively.
Of the 3,230 heads of carabao, 117 are buffaloes, which are product of the successful artificial insemination undertaken by the OAS in coordination with the Philippine Carabao Center, UP Los Baños, Laguna.
Majority of the households engages in backyard-scale agri-business like swine fattening, swine breeding, cattle production and duck and poultry raising. There are also commercial livestock farms present in Rosario. Products are marketed to the local market, nearby cities of Lipa and Batangas, auction market in Padre Garcia and other nearby provinces.
Livestock and Poultry Population, 1999
Livestock/Poultry and No. of Heads/Fowls
- Swine - 91,897
- Cattle - 9,746
- Carabao - 3,230
- Goat - 4,718
- Horse - 916
- Total Livestock - 110,507
- Total Poultry - 105,000
Inventory of Livestock and Poultry Farms, 1999
Name of Farm, Location and Area (in hectares)
- Accre Farm in Alupay - 3.4077 has.
- Angara Farm in Alupay - 0.0646 has.
- Canarias Farm in Alupay - 0.6735 has.
- KJRGR Farm in Alupay - 0.0514 has.
- Milagros Farm in Bagong Pook - 4.8000 has.
- Agri-Fortuna Farms in Bayawang - 5.0000 has.
- Dood's Mac Farm in Baybayin - 4.1016 has.
- Ada's Farm in Maligaya - 10.2322 has.
- E.A. Llagas Farm in Natu - 0.5473 has.
- Luz Farm in Pinagsibaan 30.0000 has.
- Bonanza Stock Farm in San Carlos - 5.0000 has.
- AVR Farm in San Ignacio - 0.0336 has.
- Sto. Rosario Farm in San Ignacio - 0.0876 has.
- Inandan Farm in San Roque - 0.1190 has.
- Jose Africa Farm in San Roque - 0.0520 has.
- PFM Agro-Industrial Dev't. Corporation in Sta. Cruz - 29.0000 has.
- Cuatro de J's Farm in Tiquiwan - 0.1736 has.
- Sevillas Piggery Farm in Tiquiwan - 0.4840 has.
- Total - 93.8281 has.
Agricultural Services and Facilities
The Department of Agriculture, through the Office for Agricultural Services, has been extending Agricultural Services and providing facilities for the continuous development of the agricultural sector of the municipality.
Various programs and projects had been initiated by said agency to assist farmers, landowners, and farm workers in their endeavors. Farming practice and technologies being introduced include the following:
- use of high yielding varieties of rice and corn
- use of newly released varieties of rice
- proper land preparation and management
- proper application of fertilizers and chemicals
- integrated pest management (IPM)
- use of pest-resistant varieties
- organic matter and rapid composing preparation
- animal health care and management
- regular immunization of livestock
- solid waste management, e.g. bio-gas installation
Farm to market roads enable farmers to market their products without difficulty. There are 68 rice mills, 3 feed mills, 7 warehouses, 1 slaughterhouse and 128 solar dryers within the municipality of Rosario.
Agricultural facilities and other related services include breeding station/services, extension services and loan and credit facility. Breeding Station and extension services are extended by the Office for Agricultural Services while loan and credit facility is provided by the banks such as Land Bank, Sto. Rosario Rural Bank, Rosario Multi-Purpose Cooperative, the Municipal Government through the Municipal Cooperative Development Council and the Women's bank.
Agricultural Facilities and Other Related Services, 1999
Agricultural Facilities and Other Related Services, Location and Agency
- Breeding Station/Services in Poblacion B by the Office for Agricultural Services
- Technical Institution in Poblacion B by the Pablo Borbon Memorial Institute of Technology
- Extension Services in Poblacion B by the Office for Agricultural Services
- Loan/Credit Facility in:
- Market Site by the Land Bank
- Market Site by the Rosario Multipurpose Coop.
- Poblacion B by the Sto. Rosario Rural Bank
- Poblacion B by the Mun. Gov't. of Rosario (Municipal Cooperative Development Council)
- Poblacion C by the Women's Rural Bank
Modern practices in farming systems are being practiced by the farmers. There are 10 4-wheeled tractors and 379 hand tractors in the municipality. Irrigated areas are being served by 353 irrigation facilities including Shallow Tube Wells (STW). Four barangays namely, San Ignacio, Namuco, Itlugan and Marilag are being served by the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) system. Harvesting becomes easier and faster with the use of 239 units of threshers.
Inventory of Farm Machinery, 1999
Farm Machinery and Number of Units
- 4-Wheel Tractor - 10
- Hand Tractor - 379
- Irrigation Pump (4" diameter) - 232
- Big irrigation pumps (more than 4" diameter) - 34
- Shallow Tube Well/OSP (less than 4" diameter) - 87
- Power Sprayer - 173
- Transplanter - 1
- Weeder - 935
- Thresher - 239
- Total - 2,090
Other Agricultural Products
Rosario is also noted for its agricultural products like "kalamay" and "panutsa" being sold at the municipal public market, sari-sari stores and other neighboring municipalities. These are also favorite pasalubong for balikbayans and other tourists and guests.
Crop Production and Food Requirements
Crop production in terms of rice and other agricultural crops are generally more than the requirements. Currently, the rice/cereal requirement of the population is 10,416,500 kilograms. With the production of 17,828,275 kilograms, there is a surplus of 7,411,775 kilograms.
In terms of fruits and vegetable production, it can also be considered more than the food requirement.
Using the Food and Nutrition Research Institute standard per capita dietary/food requirement, the projected food requirement for year 2000 – 2010 is shown here:
FNRI Food Requirement Standards
Agricultural Product and Standard Requirement (in kg per year)
- Cereals and cereal products - 124 kg/yr
- Sugar and syrups - 70 kg/yr
- Starchy roots and tubers - 60 kg/yr
- Vegetables - 39 kg/yr
- Fruits - 28 kg/yr
- Dried beans, nuts and seeds - 4 kg/yr
- Milk and milk products - 16 kg/yr
- Eggs - 4 kg/yr
- Fish, meat and poultry - 54 kg/yr
- Miscellaneous - 7 kg/yr
Strategic Agricultural and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ) as per RA 8436
Strategic Agricultural and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ) have been identified in the municipality pursuant to the provisions of the Agricultural and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) or RA 8436.
These zones were approved under the Sangguniang Bayan Resolution No. 129 - 2000 dated October 16, 2000. The different zones are shown in the following:
Description and Area Distribution of SADZ, 1999
SAFDZ Area, Description of SAFDZ Areas and Area (in hectares)
- 1 - strategic crop sub-development zone with 7,697 has.
- 4 - strategic crop/livestock sub-development zone has. with 5,734 has.
- Total SFDZ Areas - 13,431 has.
Strategic Crop/Livestock Sub-Development Zone, on the other hand, includes barangays Itlugan, Tiquiwan, San Jose, Mavalor, Maalas-as, Cahigam, Bulihan, Mayuro, Baybayin, Lumbangan, portion of Mabato, Alupay, Pinagsibaan and portion Puting Kahoy.
CARPable Areas Under RA 6657
The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL) under RA 6657 provides for the coverage of certain areas in the municipality for distribution to tenants and retention of agricultural activities therein. These are termed as CARPable areas and are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agrarian Reform. The location of CARPable areas in the municipality by barangay are as follows:
Location of CARPable Areas and Working Scope (in hectares), 1999
- Alupay - 84.0422 has.
- Balibago - 13.2749 has.
- Bayawang - 229.5057 has.
- Baybayin - 11.2987 has.
- Bulihan - 46.3820 has.
- Cahigam - 47.7796 has.
- Calantas - 249.6710 has.
- Colongan - 56.5954 has.
- Itlugan - 42.5379 has.
- Leviste - 246.2948 has.
- Mabato - 320.0932 has.
- Mabunga - 205.4414 has.
- Macalamcam A - 31.8144 has.
- Macalamcam B - 7.1077 has.
- Malaya - 0.7905 has.
- Maligaya - 18.9335 has.
- Marilag - 7.0779 has.
- Masaya - 28.5936 has.
- Mavalor - 14.4656 has.
- Mayuro - 60.9350 has.
- Namunga - 7.1937 has.
- Nasi - 146.3091 has.
- Natu - 49.0056 has.
- Palacpac - 40.0000 has.
- Pinagsibaan - 173.1126 has.
- Puting Kahoy - 54.1367 has.
- Quilib - 21.9091 has.
- Salao - 24.3301 has.
- San Carlos - 12.9652 has.
- Sta. Cruz - 35.7973 has.
- San Ignacio - 15.0368 has.
- San Isidro - 1,239.6144 has.
- San Jose - 14.5479 has.
- San Roque - 6.7623 has.
- Timbugan - 4.4547 has.
- Tiquiwan - 20.4430 has.
Source: MARO, Rosario, Batangas
Support services for CARP beneficiaries are also being provided. In the Municipality of Rosario, these are concentrated in the two existing Agrarian Reform Communities (ARCs) such as Barangay Pinagsibaan and San Isidro. There are also five barangays newly launched as ARCs in Rosario.
Among the support services provided are provision of irrigation facilities. This is in coordination with the National Irrigation Administration (NIA).
Other services include livelihood projects for CARP beneficiaries such as hog raising and cattle fattening. This is in coordination with line agencies such as the Department of Agriculture (DA), Philippine Rice Research Institute (PHILRICE), UP Pahinungud and other line agencies for provision of training on crop and livestock production.
Accessing of farm-to-market roads was also among the support services provided from the CARP Fund.
Organization and strengthening of cooperatives in the ARCs through provision of organizational development in coordination with the Provincial Cooperative Development Office (PCDO) were also provided.
Lastly are accessing of loans from the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP) such as for hog breeding and conduct of Rice Productivity Enhancement Project (RPEP) for selected cooperators.
Maintenance of the current level of production in terms of agricultural crops is the major concern at the start of the planning period. Current farming practice and technologies, agricultural services and facilities are considered effective considering production levels. Socially, agricultural activities have been rewarding among farmers, landowners and farm workers.
Further increase in production of agricultural crops with the end-in-view of processing surplus production as an input to agro-industrialization.
Raising the level of agricultural development into processing and manufacturing of by-products level will make agriculture more economically viable and lucrative.
Targeting for globally competitive agricultural activities will be more responsive to the needs of the growing population within the planning period and beyond.
Continuous research, experimentation, promotion and environmental impact consideration must be prioritized to achieve this aim. Sustainability of agricultural activity must always be achieved.
Conversion of agricultural lands should be scrutinized and carefully done to maintain agricultural production levels. Riceland, specifically irrigated lands should not be converted to other uses. In other words, irrigated and potentially irrigable lands should be spared from conversion.
Potentially irrigable lands of the municipality are abundantly located in rainfed areas wanting to be tapped by local government intervention through increased public investment in irrigation facilities in order to maximize cropping intensity.
Other croplands maybe considered for conversion with due consideration of its production capacity.
Conversion of agricultural lands should conform with the legal requirement for reclassification limit set fort in the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL) and the Local Government Code of 1991 as well as its implementing guidelines specially Administrative Order 20 and Memorandum Circular 54 or reclassification and conversions.
Rosario is a 2nd Class LGU and thus is entitled to 10 percent of its total agricultural area for reclassification in accordance with the Local Government Code. But such legal provisions should not be exploited as valid justification for indiscriminate conversion of farmlands for greater economic benefits today, without carefully considering its impact on future generations.
Agri-industrialization being espoused here partakes of light to medium industries, which are agri-based. These are industries that process and make use of agricultural products as inputs. These types of industries can locate in agricultural areas.
Marketing and export of these agricultural and agri-industrial products must also be considered. Promotions and trade fairs, agricultural exhibits must be made to ensure markets. Incentives to traders and entrepreneur may also be considered. Thus a holistic approach to agriculture production, processing and marketing must be established within the planning period and beyond.
Being considered under agricultural activity, livestock and poultry production may be enough. However, increase in population not only within but also outside of the municipality will demand additional meat processing. Processing of meat products and by products is also in order.
Livestock and poultry raising must also be modernized and updated so as to meet the requirements for mass production and agro-industrialization.
Agricultural support facilities such as technical and especially financial should be made available to farmers, landowners and farm workers to enhance the proposed agricultural development.
Municipal Land Use Committee and the Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator (June 2000), Comprehensive Land Use Plan of Rosario, Batangas for Planning Period: 2000-2010, Municipality of Rosario, Batangas, Philippines